Veidruste Otsing

Thursday, February 26, 2015

bees.us.millitary.army.nature

Short notes about nature in combination with robots and viruses to take in to account in large scale.
THe weapons of bees and bugs with needed viruses or trainings can be activated and grown from 0 to gigantic amount with in months by not activating any of the main army tools and to transport to various locations ower the world easily before red alert, and on times of alert it is already more easy to spread anything in full scale. Everything that hasbeen prepared, from half robotic bugs to clever viruses and waves. In this post short post about bees mostly, for future reserch notes.

Middle section of the page is about robotics and botto page part just to take a look of peoples intelligence and involvements know how before calling them just accademics. Who work on it, thousands..


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entomological_warfare
Entomological warfare (EW)
is a type of biological warfare that uses insects  in a direct attack or as vectors to deliver a biological agent, such as plague or cholera. The concept has existed for centuries and research and development have continued into the modern era.
Essentially, EW exists in three varieties. One type of EW involves infecting insects with a pathogen and then dispersing the insects over target areas. The insects then act as a vector, infecting any person or animal they might bite. Another type of EW is a direct insect attack against crops; the insect may not be infected with any pathogen but instead represents a threat to agriculture. The final method of entomological warfare is to use uninfected insects, such as bees, to directly attack the enemy.

A 14th century plague epidemic in Asia Minor that eventually became known as the Black Death (carried by fleas) is one such event that has drawn attention from historians as a possible early incident of entomological warfare.[4] That plague's spread over Europe may have been the result of a biological attack on the Crimean city of Kaffa


Also always read ALL other language pages in wikipedia, and their TALK pages, to get a picture what has been tried to publish, here is Ukraina version (sometimes less is more)(for "real" research basics. Before deeper Nets.)


Lockwood theorizes that the Ark of the Covenant may have been deadly when opened because it contained deadly fleas.
 ( "Warfare gets the creepy-crawlies ) ( UW Professor Examines Biological Setting of Egyptian Plagues )
( Insects: Tougher than anthrax )
( "Reviews of The United States and Biological Warfare: secrets of the Early Cold War and Korea )
( An Evaluation of Entomological Warfare as a Potential Danger to the United States and European NATO Nations )
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol46no4/article11.html )
http://entomology.montana.edu/historybug/insects_as_bioweapons.htm )
( Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction )
( http://rockymountainarsenalarchive.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/ja_112.pdf )
( Research Policies, BW Development & Disarmament )
http://www.bordeninstitute.army.mil/published_volumes/chemBio/Ch34.pdf )
( https://rockymountainarsenalarchive.wordpress.com/2011/07/09/tx-anticrop-agent-project-112/ )
( The Role of Insects as a Biological Weapon )
Six-legged Soldiers: Using Insects as Weapons of War )
( Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, Chapter 34 TRICHOTHECENE MYCOTOXINS p.659: http://www.bordeninstitute.army.mil/published_volumes/chemBio/Ch34.pdf )

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Resent random news in random order:

http://www.businessinsider.com/no-kidding-bees-are-behind-the-design-of-americas-next-gen-mini-drones-2012-10
Not just in terms of structure, but more importantly in terms of brains. Bees are the next-gen weapons, for delivery of military payloads, reconnaissance and surveillance.
The hardware side of things is where Harvard University researchers come into play. Their RoboBees program is deadset on enhancing the presence of biobees in terms of crop pollination, or so they hope.
The aims of the program, from their site:
  • autonomously pollinating a field of crops;
  • search and rescue (e.g., in the aftermath of a natural disaster);
  • hazardous environment exploration;
  • military surveillance;
  • high resolution weather and climate mapping; and 
  • traffic monitoring. (not just cars, as they linked with all other networks)
Funny to note that their mission goals state military as fourth on the list. Now Harvard only gets about a one percent of the Pentagon funding that MIT gets, but it doesn't take a genius to figure out that farmers aren't going to be the first in line for orders of this RoboBee hardware

 The important distinction is that these new drones are not autonomous the way we traditionally think: preprogrammed routes and missions executed or aborted based on input, stipulations coded by the drone operators.
No, these drones actually "think."
From Emspak:
Called the "Green Brain," the software model will focus on how a bee sees and smells. With that, a robotic bee could be built that actually behaves like a real bee, rather than just flying on a pre-programmed path and carrying out instructions.


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Political Economy and Militarization of Bees
(video )http://www.c-span.org/video/?319379-1/political-economy-militarization-bees
Professor and author Jake Kosek talked about the use of bees by the military and in the U.S. “war on terror.” Professor Kosek discussed the social political history of bees and their use in American industrialization, including the reshaping of the bee’s physiology and social life by agribusiness as well as the use of bees as weapons and inspiration by the U.S. military. Topics included “political entomology,” the problem of honey bee hive collapse, and the role of animals in general in modern warfare. 
“Political Economy of Bees” was a talk of the Shaping San Francisco community history project held at the Eric Quezada Center for Culture and Politics
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‘Russianized’ Bees Trained To Attack Ukraine For Russian Military
 http://empirenews.net/russianized-bees-trained-to-attack-ukraine-for-russian-military/
A Russian whistleblower has spilled the beans on another planned invasion of Ukraine by Russian forces, this time aided by a specially trained and bred species of attack bees.
The ‘Russianized’ bees were housed and trained in what the informant described as “anger hives,” specially constructed to keep the bees constantly agitated and ready for attack.
Through a translator he said, “We interrupted the bees’ sleep and work cycles and sometimes would poke the anger hives with sticks and broom handles.

It is unclear whether the worldwide collapse of bee populations is connected with Russian bee recruitment efforts, although the unnamed informant did provide some clues as to how the bees were obtained.
“We were ordered to plant many special fields of clover and other plant and flowers that would attract the bees.  These orders came directly from President Putin.  We sprayed the plants with synthetic bee hormones to attract them, and then with smoke machines and nets we were able to calm and capture them for the hives.”
As for the ‘training,’ it was explained that following the bees’ capture, the anger hives were placed in a greenhouse type structure where they were exposed to bright lights 24 hours a day, with loud ‘Ukrainian style’ music played throughout the day.  Teams of ‘box bangers’ were also recruited to agitate the bees.  The box bangers would rhythmically hit the hives with sticks at pre-determined times during the day at pre-set intervals timed to coincide with specific musical passages.  It was believed that this schedule provided a command structure for the bees, thus making them easier to attack when triggered by the replay of the musical selection.
Russian authorities have denied the story.  A spokesman for the Russian military said the charges come from “the delusions of an ex-member of our forces who received what you would call a dishonorable discharge.  These absolutely ridiculous rumors came from an individual labeled a misfit.  He could not withstand the rigors and discipline of military training.”
“That is not surprising,” said the informant.  “Why would they admit such a thing?  I saw it with my own eyes and have several bee-stings to prove what I saw is true.  Someday the world will know that I am not a crazy person and that I speak the truth,” he added.

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 Why the U.S. Military Is Into Bee Brain Surgery
 http://nautil.us/issue/11/light/why-the-us-military-is-into-bee-brain-surgery
Bees might hold the secret to a new kind of nighttime navigation.

“It seems that these bees are able to do something that almost defies physics,” says Warrant, a functional zoologist who has been researching nocturnal vision in insects for more than two decades. “We believe the miracle of how the bees see so well at night is happening here in these lamina monopolar cells.”

The bee brain surgery requires such precision that even the researcher’s own foot tapping could jostle the table enough to misalign the tiny electrode.

 That’s what the Unites States Air Force is after. “The nocturnal bees that Eric and his people look at in Panama do some light collection and processing tricks that allow them to see in conditions when most insects cannot see, and we are interested in that kind of trick,” says Ric Wehling, a senior research engineer at Eglin Air Force Base in Florida. The agency is pondering a future breed of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) that wouldn’t have to rely on GPS. These MAVs would be able to visually comprehend the world and see in the dark just like the bees.

M. genalis is not the only creature capable of the neural summation trick. Warrant says several other nocturnal bee, wasp, and ant species may be doing it too. Animal and human brains perform their own types of neural summation to improve the quality of input. “Summation is a way of making the best out of a bad situation,” Warrant says. “Brains are very good at making efficient calculations with limited numbers of input.” He believes that human brains might be using similar summation methods when processing sounds or smells. But this kind of photon-generated impulse summation is beyond our brain’s reach, and that’s why Warrant’s researcher is inserting electrodes into the monopolar cells of M. genalis.

  The operation is done inside a metal mesh cage that keeps out extraneous electrical noise that can interfere with detecting the electrical signals in the brain. “An electrode can act a bit like an antenna,” says Warrant, “and pick up this noise and that would contaminate the signal you are trying to record from the neuron.” Using a syringe, the researcher fills the electrode with a conductive solution that will carry the electrical impulses from the monopolar cells through a wire into an amplifier and to a computer to be analyzed...

Makes You wonder on what level they do it for humans...
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Scientists and Soldiers Solve a Bee Mystery
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/07/science/07bees.html?_r=0

It has been one of the great murder mysteries of the garden: what is killing off the honeybees?
Since 2006, 20 to 40 percent of the bee colonies in the United States alone have suffered “colony collapse.” Suspected culprits ranged from pesticides to genetically modified food.
Now, a unique partnership — of military scientists and entomologists — appears to have achieved a major breakthrough: identifying a new suspect, or two.
A fungus tag-teaming with a virus have apparently interacted to cause the problem, according to a paper by Army scientists in Maryland and bee experts in Montana in the online science journal PLoS One.
Exactly how that combination kills bees remains uncertain, the scientists said — a subject for the next round of research. But there are solid clues: both the virus and the fungus proliferate in cool, damp weather, and both do their dirty work in the bee gut, suggesting that insect nutrition is somehow compromised.

Liaisons between the military and academia are nothing new, of course. World War II, perhaps the most profound example, ended in an atomic strike on Japan in 1945 largely on the shoulders of scientist-soldiers in the Manhattan Project. And a group of scientists led by Jerry Bromenshenk of the University of Montana in Missoula has researched bee-related applications for the military in the past — developing, for example, a way to use honeybees in detecting land mines.
first time that the defense machinery of the post-Sept. 11 Homeland Security Department and academia have teamed up to address a problem that both sides say they might never have solved on their own.
“Together we could look at things nobody else was looking at,” said Colin Henderson, an associate professor at the University of Montana’s College of Technology and a member of Dr. Bromenshenk’s “Bee Alert” team.
Human nature and bee nature were interconnected in how the puzzle pieces came together. Two brothers helped foster communication across disciplines. A chance meeting and a saved business card proved pivotal. Even learning how to mash dead bees for analysis — a skill not taught at West Point — became a factor.

Dr. Bromenshenk’s team at the University of Montana and Montana State University in Bozeman, working with the Army’s Edgewood Chemical Biological Center northeast of Baltimore, said in their jointly written paper that the virus-fungus one-two punch was found in every killed colony the group studied. Neither agent alone seems able to devastate; together, the research suggests, they are 100 percent fatal.

Research at the University of California, San Francisco, had already identified the fungus as part of the problem. And several RNA-based viruses had been detected as well. But the Army/Montana team, using a new software system developed by the military for analyzing proteins, uncovered a new DNA-based virus, and established a linkage to the fungus, called N. ceranae.
“Our mission is to have detection capability to protect the people in the field from anything biological,” said Charles H. Wick, a microbiologist at Edgewood. Bees, Dr. Wick said, proved to be a perfect opportunity to see what the Army’s analytic software tool could do. “We brought it to bear on this bee question, which is how we field-tested it,” he said.
The Army software system — an advance itself in the growing field of protein research, or proteomics — is designed to test and identify biological agents in circumstances where commanders might have no idea what sort of threat they face. The system searches out the unique proteins in a sample, then identifies a virus or other microscopic life form based on the proteins it is known to contain. The power of that idea in military or bee defense is immense, researchers say, in that it allows them to use what they already know to find something they did not even know they were looking for.

They said that combination attacks in nature, like the virus and fungus involved in bee deaths, are quite common, and that one answer in protecting bee colonies might be to focus on the fungus — controllable with antifungal agents — especially when the virus is detected.
Still unsolved is what makes the bees fly off into the wild yonder at the point of death. One theory, Dr. Bromenshenk said, is that the viral-fungal combination disrupts memory or navigating skills and the bees simply get lost. Another possibility, he said, is a kind of insect insanity. :D
In any event, the university’s bee operation itself proved vulnerable just last year, when nearly every bee disappeared over the course of the winter.

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Honeybees join the bomb squad
http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/tech/science/2006-11-26-bees-bomb-sniffing_x.htm

But with defense researchers at places such as the federal Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency focusing on anti-terrorism measures, scientists are looking at nature's native soldiers, bees and wasps, to augment dogs widely used for bomb detection.
"Honeybees are as good as dogs," Haarmann says. The trick, it turns out, is training the little critters to detect bomb scents. Some bees, exposed to the scents of bomb ingredients and rewarded with sugar water, get it right away. Others wash out, a surprise given that insects are seen as automatons because their behavior is so uniform, Haarmann says.
Wasps, genetic cousins to bees, also have been proposed for bomb-sniffing duty. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the University of Georgia last year unveiled a "wasp hound" device that relies on five strapped-in wasps to sniff out danger.
Insect sniffers may have uses in areas such as food quality, counterfeit-goods smuggling and even in detecting drug smugglers. A colleague of Haarmann's, Los Alamos biochemist Kirsten McCabe, has trained bees to sniff out cocaine and methamphetamine. "The really nifty thing is we are allowing Mother Nature to do the heavy lifting," Haarmann says.
The recent publication of the honeybee genome in the journal Nature showed that bees have about five times more smell-related genes than flies do. "I guess we got lucky, we picked the right insect," Bromenshenk says. "They are amazing critters."
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      Home /      Science /      Military /      Explosives  How can you train honeybees to sniff for bombs?
 http://science.howstuffworks.com/bomb-sniffing-bees.htm

With the bees strapped into small tubes, scientists involved in the Stealthy Insect Sensor Project release the smell of chemical components used to make explosives like dynamite, C-4 and liquid bombs.
By containing the bees in an enclosed structure, researchers can use monitoring equipment to alert to the waving of the proboscises. In this case, a digital camera combined with pattern-recognition software can pick up the waving and indicate the presence of explosives in the vicinity. The portable structure makes it ideal for testing in airports, subway stations and at roadside checkpoints in war zones like Iraq. The bees can detect the target chemicals in the air in concentrations as low as a few parts per trillion.
 Years earlier, a DARPA-funded project trained honeybees to be attracted to explosives instead of pollen using the same sugar-water-reward process.
Related HowStuffWorks Articles
More "Great" Links
Sources
  • "New homeland security buzz: Bomb-sniffing bees." CNN.com. Nov. 28, 2006. http://www.cnn.com/2006/TECH/science/11/28/bombsniffing. bees.reut/index.html
  • Revkin, Andrew C. "Bees Learning Smell of Bombs With Backing From Pentagon." The New York Times on the Web. May 13, 2002. http://www.cyberbee.net/news/beemine.html

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Bomb-sniffing bees - taking the sting out of landmines
http://www.army-technology.com/features/feature-bomb-sniffing-bees-sting-out-of-landmines/

Professor Nikola Kezic, a specialist in bees at the University of Zagreb in Croatia, is creating a buzz by showing off another important function of bees; their ability to detect mines.
He has been a professor in the Faculty of Agriculture since 1985 and is close to retirement this year. His swansong is a four-year project working with the European Union's Toolbox Implementation of Removal of Anti-Personnel Mines, Submunitions and Uxo (TIRAMISU) and also Mine Action in Croatia (CROMAC).

In 2002, we started experiments looking at the bee's proboscis reflex (when the bee extends its 'tongue' for a sugar solution) and training the bees as a colony. It was a challenge at first to get the bee colony to work as we would like, individual bees are much easier.
GT: How easy is it now to train the bees?
NK: It's very simple. We place a glass containing a sugar solution in soil mixed with traces of TNT. The bees are attracted to the sugar solution and need to pass the TNT to get to it.
Once the bees learn they can find food in an area where there is the smell of TNT, they follow the TNT everywhere.

GT: how has your work been received by the international community?
NK: Mines are a big problem in Croatia, thousands of our people have died and suffered terrible injuries because of them. I want to help in any way I can. In the beginning I was just experimenting, but now I have a project which is supported by the European Union.
I have funding from the EU's TIRAMISU project which means I need to get results. My work with TIRAMISU began last year and we are now in the second year of a four year project.


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http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=43039
http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=43040

WASHINGTON, July 28, 1999 – This article also appears in illustrated form on the Defenselink News Web site www.defenselink.mil/specials/bees/index.html.
The recent buzz about honeybees as flying mine detectors is just part of the story about how the Pentagon is trying to enlist diverse members of the zoological kingdom for military applications.
[For more information on DoD's bee research, see the American Forces Press Service story "Researchers Abuzz About Land Mine Detecting Bees." ]
Add flies, beetles, lobsters and even geckos, and the full range of species being studied starts to become clear. Add creative thinking and technology and the range of possible defense-related applications starts to boggle the mind.
All the above are part of three-year study sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The purpose of the study is not only to determine capabilities within the zoological kingdom, but to see if they can be replicated in ways beneficial to DoD, according to Alan Rudolph, program manager in DARPA's Defense Sciences Office.
The study, known as the "Controlled Biological and Biomimetic Systems" project, studies organisms from three different perspectives.
First, as with the bees and moths, the program examines whether an organism, without the aid of technology, can be trained and used in direct support of a defense need

Rudolph said this simply takes advantage of existing biosystems to perform tasks.
The second perspective involves what Rudolph called "biohybrids." This involves technologically boosting an organism's natural abilities. Attaching radio tracking tags to mine-detecting honeybees is an example of this. In this case, the tags increase the bees' abilities to provide timely and accurate information.
Biomimetics is the stuff of science fiction. This third perspective involves creating a mechanical replicant that can perform the same task as the organic original. That's where the flies, beetles, lobsters and lizards come into play.

Similarly, giant sphinx moths are being studied to see if they, like wasps, can be trained to detect low levels of chemical compounds.

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Related content


Teleautonomy - improving remote robotic mobility and manipulation
Freed from their tethers and from minute-to-minute human guidance too, today's robots are a far cry from their forebears. Dr Gareth Evans reports on how companies like Robotics Engineering Excellence (RE2) are working to equip military robots with greater levels of on-board decision-making capabilities - and perhaps, ultimately, full autonomy.

Brain computer interfacing: a big step towards military mind-control
The latest round of grants under the US Department of Defense University Research Instrumentation Program lists Brain Computer Interfacing as an area of funded research.


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By Paul Stone
American Forces Press Service

http://www.defense.gov/specials/bees/

DoD, through the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, is in the midst of a three-year study to determine whether honeybees, equipped with tiny radio frequency tags, can help detect land mines. But as Alan Rudolph quickly pointed out, the current research with honeybees is part of a larger research study of possible military-related uses for crustaceans, insects and reptiles.
The larger research project is known as the "Controlled Biological and Biomimetic Systems" program, said Rudolph, program manager in DARPA's Defense Sciences Office. For more information on it, see the accompanying story "Creatures Feature Possible Defense Applications."
http://www.defense.gov/specials/bees/natures.html

(yeah, 3 million LOL)
Rudolph said the insects have been used for many years to collect environmental information, such as the presence of pollutants or trace materials on plants. He said the Environmental Protection Agency registered honeybees as valid data collectors -- their mop-like bodies soak up any contaminants they contact. Additionally, Rudolph said social animals such as bees and dogs are highly trainable and respond well to positive reinforcement and rewards.

While the honeybees' mine detection training has received most of the news media's attention recently, Rudolph pointed out that's but one application being studied. Similar research is under way to determine if bees might be useful in detecting chemical and biological agents.
Nor are bees the only insects being studied for such applications. Testing is also ongoing to determine whether parasitic wasps can be trained to associate food with byproducts released by chemical or biological agents and to swarm where they might be stored. Similarly, giant sphinx moths are being studied to see if they, like wasps, can be trained to detect low levels of chemical compounds.

(remeber... it was from 1940s... )
http://www.defense.gov/home/features/2012/1012_biosurveillance/
http://www.defense.gov/home/features/2013/0113_defense-intelligence/
http://www.defense.gov/home/features/2012/0312_tbi/
http://www.defense.gov/home/features/2011/1011_science-tech/
http://www.defense.gov/home/features/2010/1010_energy/

http://www.defense.gov/home/features/

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Detection of Methyl Salicylate
Transported by Honeybees (Apis
mellifera) Using Solid Phase
Microextraction (SPME) Fibers
http://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-control.cgi/2001/013341.pdf

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has recognized that biological or chemical toxins are a real and growing threat to troops, civilians and the ecosystem.
Sandia’s Explosive Component Facility (ECF) personnel have been involved in numerous projects aimed at detecting land mines, unexploded ordnance and chemical warfare agents by characterizing and modeling their degradation in the environment. Recently the ECF has been supporting the
 Controlled Biological and Biomimetric Systems (CBBS) program of DARPA, Defense Sciences Office, by evaluating the feasibility of using honeybees from environmental sampling of biological
and chemical “agents of harm”.





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 http://www.defense.gov/contracts/contract.aspx?contractid=1008

 Molecular Geodesics Inc.*, Cambridge, Mass., is being awarded a $2,250,000 increment as part of a $6,449,413 cost plus fixed fee, research and development contract in support of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Biological Warfare Defense (BWD) program; specifically, the contractor will identify biomimetic materials for pathogen neutralization. Work will be performed in Cambridge, Mass., and is expected to be completed by March 10, 1999. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. There was an announcement in the Commerce Business Daily on July 12, 1996, and 39 bids were received.


FInansical and proejct justification descriptions
 http://comptroller.defense.gov/Portals/45/Documents/defbudget/fy2016/budget_justification/pdfs/03_RDT_and_E/DARPA_0400D_RDTE_MasterJustificationBook_Defense_Advanced_Research_Project.pdf

http://comptroller.defense.gov/


Defence search
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http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/50332101/g-i-bees-largest-source-funding-apiary-research-comes-from-pentagon-u-s-military
The article discusses the use of honey bees as a military weapon in the U.S. It reveals that the biggest source of funding for apiary research came from the Pentagon and the U.S. military in an effort to make a new entomology in an age of empire. Moreover, it states that the instrumentalization of the honey bees is involved in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funded program called the Hybrid Insect Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (HI-MEMS) project.



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http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2013/03/07/173465469/if-caffeine-can-boost-the-memory-of-bees-can-it-help-us-too

The researchers wanted to know whether the bees would respond differently to flowers that contained a caffeinated nectar, compared to those that just had sugary nectar.
And, wow, turns out there was quite a difference. The bees feeding on the caffeinated nectar were three times better able to remember the flowers' odor 24 hours later
"Caffeine absolutely influences our behavior," says Abraham Palmer of the University of Chicago. "It changes mood and performance in a variety of different ways." Due to genetic differences, our individual responses to caffeine vary.
Some of the best studies on the effects of caffeine on people come from the U.S. military, where caffeine has been studied as a way to keep soldiers alert.
In one study, researchers observed the effects of caffeine on a group of sailors who were training to become Navy Seals.

"We found that in moderate doses, caffeine enhanced ability to pay attention, and it enhanced vigilance," says Lieberman.
And caffeine also seemed to improve the exhausted sailors' short-term memories, something Lieberman was not expecting to see. "We were surprised that caffeine had such widespread effects," he says.
But in the absence of exhaustion, caffeine doesn't seem to help people remember any better.

(so good enought for millitary service, makes to think and focus on things that is pre written)
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 http://hyperstealth.com/haarp/index.htm
 Beginning in the Summer of 2006, bee hives in more than half the U.S. States, Four Canadian Provinces and a number of Countries in Europe have mysteriously been losing billions of bees
These past few months a number of research groups confirmed that Bee Populations have dropped dramatically within the past year in North America and Europe. This mystery is now being referred to as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). The CCD term is used when a hive's worker bees don’t return to the hive, it is thought they are becoming disoriented and unable to navigate back – only to die from the cold. The hive’s remaining semi permanent bees such as the Queen and immature workers cannot sustain themselves.
The problem was first noted last summer; however, over half of all American states have reported CCD and only 40 percent of the commercial hives on the West Coast and 30 percent of the hives on the East Coast remain intact. The problem has also been confirmed in numerous European countries1,2 and Canadian bee keepers in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Ontario are also reporting suspicious losses in the bee populations but the Canadian Officials are not yet prepared to say it is due to CCD. 3
The theory has been put forward that Cellular Phones are to blame as a number of studies in Germany showed that 70% of bees will not return to a hive if a cellular phone is close to the hive
This small scale study indicated that the electromagnetics from the mobile transmitters are interfering with the bee’s sensitive navigational ability.4
“The HAARP transmitter is limited to frequencies below 10 Mhz. Frequencies in this range are affected by absorption in the D layer of the ionosphere which disappears at night. Conversely, ionization in the reflective F layer would be expected to be high for several hours after sunset permitting skywave propagation (bouncing signals off high altitude ionosphere layers for long distance reception) at the 6.99 Mhz frequency.”
The test concluded that HAARP High Frequency transmissions can be detected in Canada, U.S. and Europe. It just so happens that the mysterious CCD problem seems to be taking place within the same region!
HAARP transitioned just prior to the Summer of 2006 to full power from 960 kW (kilowatts) to 3.6 mW (megawatts) which is an increase of almost 4 times the output and the technology was moved from DARPA control to full joint U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force operation as of Fiscal Year 2006

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http://hyperstealth.com/haarp/part2.htm
In August 2002 the following release was issued: Russian parliament concerned about US plans to develop new weapon
[FBIS Transcribed Text] MOSCOW. Aug 8 (Interfax) - The Russian State Duma has expressed concern about the United States' program to develop a qualitatively new type of weapon.

   "Under the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), the U.S. is creating new integral geophysical weapons that may influence the near-Earth medium with high-frequency radio waves," the State Duma said in an appeal circulated on Thursday.

   "The significance of this qualitative leap could be compared to the transition from cold steel to fire arms, or from conventional weapons to nuclear weapons. This new type of weapons differs from previous types in that the near-Earth medium becomes at once an object of direct influence and its component.

   These conclusions were made by the commission of the State Duma's international affairs and defense committees


he committees reported that the U.S. is planning to test three facilities of this kind. One of them is located on the military testing ground in Alaska and its full-scale tests are to begin in early 2003. The second one is in Greenland and the third one in Norway.

   "When these facilities are launched into space from Norway, Alsaka and Greenland, a closed contour will be created with a truly fantastic integral potential for influencing the near-Earth medium," the State Duma said.

   The U.S. plans to carry out large-scale scientific experiments, under the HAARP program, and not controlled by the global community, will create weapons capable of breaking radio communication lines and equipment installed on spaceships and rockets, provoke serious accidents in electricity networks and in oil and gas pipelines and have a negative impact on the mental health of people populating entire regions, the deputies said.

   They demanded that an international ban be put on such large-scale geophysical experiments.

   The appeal, signed by 90 deputies, has been sent to President Vladimir Putin, to the United Nations and other international organizations, to the parliaments and leaders of the UN member countries, to the scientific public and to mass media outlets.

   Among those who signed the appeal are Tatyana Astrakhankina, Nikolai Kharitonov, Yegor Ligachev, Sergei Reshulsky, Vitaly Sevastyanov, Viktor Cherepkov, Valentin Zorkaltsev and Alexei Mitrofanov.
1   
--

1) Russian parliament concerned about US plans to develop new weapon  http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/haarp-duma.htm
2) United States Patent #4,686,605 Inventor: Eastlund; Bernard J.  Method and apparatus for altering a region in the earth's atmosphere, ionosphere, and/or magnetosphere http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=4,686,605.PN.&OS=PN/4,686,605&RS=PN/4,686,605
3) HAARP BIBLIOGRAPHY 1990-2005 http://www.gi.alaska.edu/services/library/haarpbibliography.html
4) Effect of Electrical Charges on Honeybees, By Ulrich Warnke, Bee World, Vol. 57, No. 2 1976  http://www.hese-project.org/hese-uk/en/papers/warnke_bee_world_76.pdf
5) Flying honey bees adsorb airborne viruses  http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/aero/2005/00000021/00000002/00004185?crawler=true 
6) Measurement of the threshold sensitivity of honeybees to weak, extremely low-frequency magnetic fields, Kirschvink J, Padmanabha S, Boyce C, Oglesby J. 1: J Exp Biol. 1997;200(Pt 9):1363-8. http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/reprint/200/9/1363 
7) Bursts of magnetic fields induce jumps of misdirection in bees by a mechanism of magnetic resonance http://www.springerlink.com/content/v6406173767q7445/ 
8) Magnetic field effects on activity and ageing in honeybees http://www.springerlink.com/content/w47v20v257pq8076/
9) How Electromagnetic Exposure can influence Learning Processes (of bees) http://www.bienenarchiv.de/forschung/2004_lernprozesse/Electromagnetic%20Exposure_Learning%20Processes.doc.pdf
10) Can Electromagnetic Exposure Cause a Change in Behaviour? http://www.hese-project.org/hese-uk/en/papers/icrw_kuhn_landau_study.pdf

About the Author
Guy Cramer is the President/CEO of HyperStealth Biotechnology Corp, President of United Dynamics Corp., inventor of the Passive Negative Ion Generator, and the developer of the SuperForce.com algorithm. Guy has worked with and/or corresponded on projects with, the Edmonton Oilers National Hockey League team, NASA JPL, NASA Headquarters, Columbia Accident Investigation Board, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Army and Senator John Warner's office (Chairman of the Armed Services Committee) prior to his retirement a few months ago. Mr. Cramer is also the grandson and former research assistant of Donald L. Hings, P.Eng, M.B.E., C.M. (Geophysicist), the developer of the first true Walkie-Talkie in 1937 who later refined the device into the "Radio Frequency System" for the Canadian Military 1942; this earned him the prestigious Member of British Empire Award, and The Order of Canada. Don Hings and Guy Cramer authored an academic paper on greenhouse gasses for the head of the United Nations Environmental Program in 1990.
In 1993 Guy discovered that the Russian's had secretly been using negative ion generators to train their top athletes; vastly improving balance, endurance and reaction time over normal levels, the Olympic committee did not object to these Russian method's. With Cramer's 1999 invention of the Passive Negative Ion Generator - he had developed a safe negative ion emission personal device with no power source which provides similar advantages to the expensive Russian system at little cost - currently he has combined the device into the collar of combat uniforms which use his fractal camouflage patterns.
In the 1997 Cramer spearheaded a group to disprove the Bible Codes with a statistical formula developed by Cramer. Many of the leading mathematicians were convinced these codes were mathematically significant until Cramer's group proved that they were common, random codes.
In 1997 one of Cramer's papers was reviewed by world renown Professor Stephen Hawking.
In 2003 Guy was commissioned by King Abdullah II of Jordan to develop a digital camouflage pattern that surpassed current U.S. issued uniforms. The King has approved this KA2 pattern for Jordanian Armed Forces and Police and printed over 500,000 uniforms with this pattern. Guy has since developed over 3,000 digital camouflage patterns, many based on fractals (feedback loops) with his partner Lt. Col. Timothy R. O'Neill, Ph.D. (U.S. Army, Ret.), who is considered to be the world expert on camouflage.
In 2003 Cramer submitted special confidential information to the head of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board regarding highly charged ion propagation in the atmosphere during a previous Shuttle landing. In 2004-2005 Cramer corresponded with Frederick Gregory, Deputy Administrator of NASA, regarding safety concerns for the launch and landing of the Space Shuttle Discovery and increased geomagnetic disturbances. It appears that Cramer’s recommendations to avoid a landing trajectory over the continental United States, where high altitude ionosphere lightning had a much greater potential, were heeded, as the landing site and alternative landing sites NASA selected took place over the most minimal land areas available within the variable orbit trajectories to use. This decision was unprecedented in previous Shuttle landings. Cramer’s research combined with new NASA research concluded that high altitude positive lightning, which the shuttle is not protected against, is not as rare as NASA had suspected and it is predominant over land and rare over the ocean.

In 2004, a visual mitigation study was spearheaded by the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI) Bureau of Land Management (BLM).  This is the most comprehensive infrastructure concealment program since World War II using specially designed "Fractal Based" camouflage patterns in projects related to concealment of critical infrastructure.  It produced remarkable results.  The design team of Dr. O'Neill, and Mr. Guy Cramer continues to achieve desired objectives as the study nears publication and implementation across DOI/BLM administered lands within the United States in 2007.

Cramer is now developing a method with Dr. O’Neill to place complex digital camouflage patterns onto supersonic aircraft as a labor efficient and cost effective system while also combining new IR and Thermal signature reduction paint into the application.  In 2006 the country of Jordan has used part of this system to place Cramer's digital pattern on over 3000 military vehicles. Also in 2006 parts of this method for the commercial market have been used for a Cellular Tower company to conceal two communication towers in environmental sensitive areas on the East coast of the United States, the visual mitigation results have been endorsed by the regulators. In 2007 this same Cellular Tower company has now licensed HyperStealth camouflage patterns for use on any cellular tower across the United States.


------------
Other animals picks small:
http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/animals/photos/10-ways-animals-have-served-the-military/terrorist-fighting-gerbils

MI5, the United Kingdom's counter-intelligence and security agency, considered using a team of trained gerbils to detect terrorists flying into Britain during the 1970s. According to Sir Stephen Lander, the organization’s former director, the Israelis had put the idea into practice, placing gerbil cages at security checks at the Tel Aviv airport. A fan wafted the scent of suspects into the gerbils’ cage, and the gerbils were trained to press a lever if they detected high levels of adrenalin.
The system was never implemented at UK airports because the Israelis were forced to abandon it after it was discovered that the gerbils couldn’t discern between terrorists and passengers who were just scared of flying.
-
Anti-tank dogs were used by the Soviet Union during World War II to fight German tanks. Dogs with explosives harnessed to their backs were trained to seek food under tanks — when the dog was underneath the vehicle a detonator would go off, triggering an explosion. While some Soviet sources claim that about 300 German tanks were damaged by the dogs, many say this is simply propaganda trying to justify the program.
In fact, the Soviet anti-tank dog had several problems. Many dogs refused to dive under moving tanks during battle because they had been trained with stationary tanks, a fuel-saving measure. Gunfire also scared many of the dogs away, and they would run back to the soldiers’ trenches, often detonating the charge upon jumping in. To prevent this, the returning dogs were shot — often by the people who had sent them — which made trainers unwilling to work with new dogs.
-
Insect cyborgs might sound like something out of a science-fiction movie, but the U.S. Department of Defense is developing such creatures as part of its Hybrid Insect Initiative. Scientists implant electronic controls into insects’ bodies during the early stages of metamorphosis and allow tissue to grow around them. The insects can then be tracked, controlled and used to gather or transmit information. For example, a caterpillar could carry a microphone to record conversations or a gas sensor to detect a chemical attack.
-
During the Cold War, the CIA attempted to transform an ordinary domestic cat into a sophisticated bugging device as part of Operation Acoustic Kitty. The idea was to surgically alter cats so they could eavesdrop on Soviet conversations from park benches and windowsills.
The project began in 1961 when the CIA implanted a battery and a microphone into a cat and turned its tail into an antenna. However, the cat wandered off when it was hungry, a problem that had to be addressed in another operation. Finally, after five years, several surgeries, intensive training and $15 million, the cat was ready for its first field test.
The CIA drove the cat to a Soviet compound on Wisconsin Avenue in Washington, D.C. and let it out of a parked van across the street. The cat walked into the road and was immediately hit by a taxi.
-
Voytek was just a baby brown bear when the Second Polish Transport Company found him wandering the hills of Iran in 1943. The soldiers took him in, feeding him condensed milk, and before long he became a part of the unit — even enjoying beers and cigarettes with his fellow soldiers.
As Voytek grew into a 6-foot, 250-pound bear, he was trained to carry mortar shells and boxes of ammunition during battle, and in 1944 he was officially enlisted in the Polish Army — complete with name, rank and number. The bear traveled with his unit, carried ammunition to soldiers under fire and once even discovered an Arab spy hiding in the unit’s bath hut. After the war, the Edinburgh Zoo became Voytek’s new home and he lived there until he died in 1963
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Homing pigeons were widely used by both American and British forces during World War II. In fact, the U.S. Army had an entire Pigeon Breeding and Training Center at Fort Monmouth, N.J., where the pigeons were trained to carry small capsules containing messages, maps, photographs and cameras. Military historians claim that more than 90 percent of all pigeon-carried messages sent by the U.S. Army during the war were received.
The birds even participated in the D-Day invasion because troops operated under radio silence. The pigeons sent information about German positions on Normandy beaches and reported back on the success of the mission. In fact, homing pigeons played such an important military role that 32 were awarded the Dickin Medal, Britain’s highest award for animal valor.
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Trained sea lions, part of the U.S. Navy’s Marine Mammal Program, locate and tag mines just like dolphins, but that’s not all these “Navy Seals” do — they also cuff underwater intruders. The sea lions carry a spring clamp in their mouths that can be attached to a swimmer or diver by simply pressing it against the person’s leg. In fact, the sea lions are so fast that the clamp is on before the swimmer is even aware of it. Once a person is clamped, sailors aboard ships can pull the swimmer out of the water by the rope attached to the clamp.
These specially trained sea lions, part of the Navy’s Shallow Water Intruder Detection System, patrol Navy bases and were even deployed to protect ships from terrorists in the Persian Gulf
-
Toward the end of World War II, the Air Force was looking for a more effective way to attack Japanese cities when Dr. Lytle S. Adams, a dental surgeon, contacted the White House with an idea. Adams suggested strapping small incendiary devices to bats, loading them into cages shaped like bombshells and dropping them from a plane. Bats would then escape from the shells and find their way into factories and other buildings where they would rest until their miniature bombs exploded.
The U.S. military began developing these “bat bombs” in the early 1940s, but the first test went awry when the bats set fire to an Air Force base in Carlsbad, N.M. After that, the project was turned over to the Navy, which completed a successful proof concept where the bats were released over a mock-up of a Japanese city. More tests were scheduled for the summer of 1944, but the program was canceled because of its slow progress. The U.S. military invested an estimated $2 million in the project.
-

Military application of bees has continued into modern times. In a novel approach practiced by the Tiv of Nigeria, bees were kept in special horns also containing powdered poisons. Thus dusted to increase the efficacy of their own venom the bees would be released in the heat of battle to attack the Tiv's enemies (it is not, however, recorded why the bees do not succumb to the poison themselves or how the bees distinguish between the Tiv and their foes [12]). During the American Civil War, Union troops were almost routed when southern artillery shattered a row of hives in a yard through which they were passing. Bees pitched at the enemy or booby trapped to topple over with trip wires were used to the advantage of both sides during skirmishes in World War I [13]. There are even some reports that the Viet Cong used sabotaged Apis dorsata nests against Americans during the Vietnam war [14]. And, in a footnote to the war in South-East Asia, what was presumed to be a biological warfare agent turned out, in fact, to be the `yellow rain' produced by Apis dorsata during massed defecation flights

Reference:
  1. Ambrose, J.T. 1973. "Bees and Warfare." Gleanings in Bee Culture. pp. 343-346
    Georghiou, G.P. 1980. "Ancient Beekeeping." The ABC and XYZ of Bee Culture. (Root, A.I., editors.) A.I. Root Company. Medina, Ohio. pp. 17-21
  2. Root, A.I. 1980. ibid.
  3. Espina-Prez, D. and G.S. Ordetx-Ros. 1983. Flora Apcola Tropical. Editorial Tecnolgico de Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica. p. 35
  4. Crane, E. 1975. Honey: a Comprehensive Survey. Bee Research Association. William Heinemann Ltd., London. p. 204
  5. Crane, 1975. ibid.
    Espina-Prez and Ordetx-Ros, 1983. ibid.
  6. Gould, J.L. and C.G. Gould. 1988. The Honey Bee. Scientific American Library, New York. pp. 2-3
  7. Krochmal, C. and A. Krochmal. 1982. "Beekeeping in Romania." American Bee Journal. Vol. 122(5), pp. 345-346
  8. Heather, P. 1940. "Animal Beliefs." Folklore. Vol. 51, p. 273
  9. Morse, R.A. 1955. "Bees Go to War." Gleanings in Bee Culture. pp. 585-587
  10. Adam, L. 1985. L'Apiculture a Travers les Ages. Editions Gerbert. pp. 75-76
  11. Morse, 1955. ibid.
  12. Aouade, J.A.A. 1979. "Traditional Beekeeping in Nigeria-- Editorial Summary from `Beekeeping Among the Tiv'." Beekeeping in Rural Development: Unexploited Beekeeping Potential in the Tropics with Particular reference to the Commonwealth. Commonwealth Secretariat and the International Bee Research Association, London. pp. 23
  13. Ransome, H.M. 1986. The Sacred Bee in Ancient Times and Folklore. Bee Books New and Old. Burrowbridge, Bridgwater, England. pp. 152
  14. Ambrose, 1973. ibid.
  15. Addey, M. 1984. "Honeybee Faeces-- An Explanation of `Yellow Rain'?." Bee World. Vol. 65(3), pp. 138-139
    Mardan, M. and P.G. Kevan. 1989. "Honeybees and `Yellow Rain'." Nature. Vol. 341, pp. 191 
  16. Morse, 1955. ibid.
  17. Teale, E.W. 1981. The Golden Throng: A Book About Bees. Alphabooks, Sherborne. pp. 128-129
  18. Ransome, 1986. ibid. p. 214
  19. Dillon, M. 1946. Cycle of Kings. Oxford. pp. 66- 67
  20. Beach, F.A. 1975. "Beasts Before the Bar." Ants, Indians, and Little Dinosaurs. (Alan Ternes, editor.) Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  21. Popul Vuh; The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life. 1985. (D. Tedlock, translator). Simon and Shuster Inc., New York. p. 194-196
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Small reference jump to mainstream basic robotics related to nature:


http://kodlab.seas.upenn.edu/Kod/Projects:
Active

Recent


Older: RHex (a DARPA DSO CBBS project led by Dan Koditschek)
  

http://www.quazoo.com/q/Biomorphic_robots
Biomorphic robotics is a sub-discipline of robotics focused upon emulating the mechanics, sensor systems, computing structures and methodologies used by animals. In short, it is building robots inspired by the principles of biological systems.
One of the most prominent researchers in the field of biomorphic robotics has been Mark W. Tilden, who has taken Rodney Brooks' theory of removing the world model from robots to a low hardware level not even using microprocessors. This is not to say the lack of microprocessors makes something biomorphic - quite the contrary. There is a huge amount of work be done implementing biological nervous and neural networks into computing devices.
In contrast M. Anthony Lewis has used the field of biomorphic robots to study how humans and animals use "biologically inspired principles" to negotiate the complexities of the real world.
The difference between neuromorphics and biomorphics is believed to be that neuromorphics focuses on analogue control and sensor systems as opposed to biomorphics trying to implement biological methods on the whole system.
An excellent example of a biomorphic machine is the robot snake.
 more from Wikipedia



( All fallowing robo links take in to account withe realization of full potential with http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DARPA#Active_projects and
http://www.darpa.mil/opencatalog/
 (take it not just as "FNORD" but also that this is here long time ago or around the corner to be public with computers like Google Wave 2 ..and bitcoin blockchain + network power that will link in future these kind of Waves to power up all these self reparing computers and brains we got to show betas right now.. as that become so cheap... human looking sex dolls from japan is one thing you can google and videos like that https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UIWWLg4wLEY to warm up.. this dark scientist also was in video with Taniel Tammet i think, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UqLzoiVzEY8 ) )

random thought,
I think there was about 70 webpages in 1983 i heard
how much did you know about domain names and websites in 83, honestly?



Historys and picks from random robot
development

(apply as usual the .:. HGP on it )
:

Makanec graduated from the Electrotechnical Faculty in Zagreb in 1961.
Establishing a cybernetics group at the university in 1962, he designed a TIOSS (remote self-organizing system) robot prototype that displayed rudimentary AI behaviour like handing out the pamphlets to public.

Branimir Makanec (born 1932, Koprivnica, Croatia (then part of Yugoslavia)), was a pioneer of computer popularization in Croatia.
In 1968, Makanec established the Multimedia Center of the Zagreb University Referral Center (MMC). The MMC was an open type computer center intended to be used for non-numerical purposes.

Boston Dynamics is an engineering and robotics design company that is best known for the development of BigDog, a quadruped robot designed for the U.S. military with funding from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and DI-Guy, software for realistic human simulation. Early in the company's history, it worked with the American Systems Corporation under a contract from the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (NAWCTSD) to replace naval training videos for aircraft launch operations with interactive 3D computer simulations featuring DI-Guy characters.Keepon is a small yellow robot designed to study social development by interacting with children. Keepon was developed by Hideki Kozima (小嶋 秀樹 Kojima Hideki) while at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) in Kyoto, Japan.
The Alive Chimpanzee is produced by WowWee Alive, a division of WowWee Ltd. The animatronic Chimpanzee is the first in WowWee Alive's product line
In attempting to make the Chimpanzee as realistic as possible, each strand of hair is rooted individually into the skin of the robot and the skin moves and is colored to match realistic skin tones, including veining. As with other WowWee robots, the Chimpanzee can be operated in different modes; in its case, the modes are Alive, Guard, Program, Demo and Sleep.
Also, as revealed in a magazine of Popular Science in one of the articles, you can rip the face off the Alive Chimpanzee to reveal a Terminator-like robot face which follows your movement with two red eyes.

Leonardo is a 2.5 foot social robot, the first created by the Personal Robots Group of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Its development is credited to Cynthia Breazeal. The body is by Stan Winston Studios, leaders in animatronics. Its body was completed in 2002. It was the most complex robot the studio had ever attempted as of 2001. Other contributors to the project include NevenVision, Inc., Toyota, NASA’s Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, and the Navy Research Lab. It was created to facilitate the study of human-robot interaction and collaboration. A DARPA Mobile Autonomous Robot Software (MARS) grant, Office of Naval Research Young Investigators Program grant, Digital Life, and Things that Think consortia have partially funded the project. The MIT Media Lab Robotic Life Group, who also studied Robonaut 1, set out to create a more sophisticated social-robot in Leonardo. They gave Leonardo a different visual tracking system and programs based on infant psychology that they hope will make for better human-robot collaboration. One of the goals of the project was to make it possible for untrained humans to interact with and teach the robot much more quickly with fewer repetitions.Megasaurus and Transaurus are transforming robotic dinosaurs. Megasaurus is owned by Mike West and Transaurus is owned by Rick and Sheri Dorritie. They are modeled after a Tyrannosaurus rex and have hydraulically activated arms, grasping claws, and jaws, as well as flame throwers set up in the head to give the effect of breathing fire from the mouth. Both robots are smaller imitations of the original Robosaurus, which was designed in 1988.

Robostrider is a self-propelled robot which uses similar mechanisms to real water striders in order to glide along the surface of the water. It was developed at Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Robostrider does not break the surface layer of the water despite leg speeds of 18 centimetres per second (7.1 in/s) it generates both capillary waves and vortices while in motion, as do Gerridae. Hu and Bush state that Robostrider moves "in a style less elegant than its natural counterpart" but point out that it can cover 20 centimetres (7.9 in) in five strides, with one winding

http://www.quazoo.com/q/Flower_robots
http://www.quazoo.com/q/Plantoid


Pekoppa (ペコッぱ) is a battery-powered plastic plant, manufactured by Sega, which reacts with nodding movements when being spoken to.
It was co-developed by Tomio Watanabe (渡辺富夫) from Okayama University, whose psychological theory inspired its design. It is intended to aid people at expressing their feelings, migrating stress and soothing worries. It was released at 30 September 2008 and sold 50,000 units until the end of that year.


A plantoid is a hypothetical robot or synthetic organism designed to look, act and grow like a plant. The concept was first scientifically published in 2010 (although models of comparable systems controlled by neural networks date back to 2003) and has so far remained largely theoretical. A prototype for the European Space Agency is now in development.
A plantoid would display an inherently distributed architecture consisting of autonomous and specialized modules. Modules can be modeled on plant parts such as the root cap and communicate to form a simple swarm intelligence. This kind of system may potentially display great robustness and resilience. It is conjectured to be capable of energy harvesting and management, collective environmental awareness and many other functions.
In science fiction, while human-like robots (Androids) are fairly frequent and animal-like biomorphic robots turn up occasionally, plantoids are quite rare. Exceptions occur in the novel Hearts, Hands and Voices (1992, US: The Broken Land) by Ian McDonald and the TV series Jikuu Senshi Spielban.

Flip Flap is a solar powered toy that resembles a plant inspired by Yusuf "flip-flap"
The small solar panel powers two leaves that bounce up and down continuously until the light source to the solar panel is stopped.
According to the EU patent database, the patent was copied by a small Chinese company called "SHENZHEN LONGGANG PINGHU TENGY". It seems that Tomy has sold the licence to market this product as "Flip Flap" in EU and Chinese Company infriged

The DelFly is a fully controllable camera-equipped flapping wing Micro Air Vehicle or Ornithopter developed at the Micro Air Vehicle Lab of the Delft University of Technology in collaboration with Wageningen University.
The DelFly project focuses on fully functioning systems and follows a top-down approach toward ever smaller and more autonomous flapping wing MAVs.
The DelFly Micro with its 10 cm wing span and 3.07 grams is still the smallest untethered, free flying, fully controllable (thrust, elevator, rudder) flapping wing MAV equipped with a camera and video transmitter carrying its own energy source. A hobbyist from Albany NY, build an even smaller version of 920 mg and just 60mm wing span, which is the worlds smallest free flying flapper till date.
The 28 centimeter 16 gram DelFly II performed ground-breaking work in the area of autonomous flight, mainly using off-board processing.
The DelFly Explorer is the latest development. It measures 28 centimeter while weighing 20 grams. It is equipped with a miniature stereo vision system enabling fully autonomous flight in unknown environments.
Roboshark is a robotic shark made by Andrew Sneath in 2003.
Roboshark starred in a BBC Natural History Unit Wildlife Special entitled "Smart Sharks: Swimming with Roboshark", in which a camera attached to the robotic shark was used to capture unique underwater footage of whale sharks, bull sharks, and great white sharks.
Now, after retiring from the TV business, Roboshark lives in a robot aquarium at the National Marine Aquarium made by Andrew Sneath. Tourists go inside a sub and go into the tank with Roboshark.


China's "Technology Daily" November 15, 2008 reported New Concept Aircraft (ZHUHAI) Co., Ltd. Dr. Li Hiu Yeung and his research group have recently successfully developed the Mechanical Gecko "Speedy Freelander".
The Mechanical Gecko "Speedy Freelander" is a new intelligent robot, it has a compact body and a flexible action. It is possible to be widely used in search, rescue, counter-terrorism, as well as scientific experiments and scientific exploration.
Mechanical Gecko "Freelander" comprehensively utilize the optical, electromagnetic sensing and new communication methods, and optical, mechanical and electronic integration technology. According to the introduction of Dr. Li of New Concept Aircraft (ZHUHAI) Co., Ltd., this gecko robot with the artificial intelligence can rapidly climbing up and down in a variety of building walls, ground and vertical wall fissure or walking upside down on the ceiling, it is able to adapt on smooth glass, rough or sticky dust walls as well as the various surface of metallic materials and also can automatically identify obstacles, circumvent the bypass and flexible and realistic movements. Its flexibility and speed are comparable to the natural gecko.

he RoboTuna is a robotic fish project involving a series of robotic fish designed and built by a team of scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the USAnybots Inc. is a robotics company founded in 2001 by Trevor Blackwell in Santa Clara, CA.
David Rogan became CEO in July 2012.

i-Cybie (爱赛比) is a robotic pet that resembles a dog. It was manufactured by Silverlit Toys Manufactory Ltd Hong Kong from 2000 to 2006. i-Cybie was developed for commercial distribution by Tiger Electronics. Outrageous International Hong Kong distributed the electronic pet from 2005 to 2006. The i-Cybie robotic dog responds to sound, touch, movement, and voice commands. The toy robot can autonomously recharge its batteries using a special docking station. I-Cybie was the first mass-produced toy that used advanced voice recognition technology  Whegs (wheel-legs or wing-legs) are mechanisms for robot locomotion. Whegs use a strategy of locomotion that combines the simplicity of the wheel with the obstacle-clearing advantages of the foot.
Whegs were pioneered at the Biologically Inspired Robotics Laboratory at Case Western Reserve University.
Whegs robots were inspired by the Prolero robot, designed in 1996 at the European Space Agency, and the RHex robot, developed by a multiuniversity effort funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The mobility system is based on studies on the locomotion of the cockroach.

The Knifefish is an autonomous unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) under development by General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems and Bluefin Robotics for the United States Navy. It is a propeller-driven minesweeping robot designed to replace the Navy's trained dolphins and sea lions after the retirement of the 50-year-old Marine Mammal Program in 2017. The Knifefish was first unveiled at a Navy exposition in April 2012, and is intended to operate in concert with the Navy's littoral combat ships (LCS) Supersonic Drones Can Outmaneuver Humans. So Why Do We Still Need Pilots?
The F-16 is familiar to airplane enthusiasts as the nimble American jet fighter, in service since the 1970s, with a nose like a heron with a severe underbite. Last week saw the maiden flight of the QF-16, which is just an F-16 with one modification: no pilot inside.
The General Atomics MQ-9 Reaper (formerly named Predator B) is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) capable of remote controlled or autonomous flight operations, developed by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems (GA-ASI) primarily for the United States Air Force. UAVs are also commonly referred to as drones by the media. The MQ-9 and other UAVs are referred to as Remotely Piloted Vehicles/Aircraft (RPV/RPA) by the U.S. Air Force to indicate their human ground controllers. The MQ-9 is the first hunter-killer UAV designed for long-endurance, high-altitude surveillance

The Autonomous Rotorcraft Sniper System (ARSS) is an experimental robotic weapons system being developed by the U.S. Army since 2005. It consists of a remotely operated sniper rifle attached to an unmanned autonomous helicopter. It is intended for use in urban combat or for several other missions requiring snipers. Flight tests are scheduled to begin in Summer 2009.
The rifle, a semiautomatic RND Manufacturing Edge 2000 firing the .338 Lapua Magnum cartridge, is mounted on a stabilized platform, which is attached to the underside of a Vigilante 502 UAV

The rifle platform, called the Precision Weapons Platform (PWP), was designed by Utah State University’s Space Dynamics Laboratory and is equipped with a situational awareness camera and a two-level zoom scopeThe system as a whole is being developed under the Army's Aviation Applied Technology Directorate in the course of its Aerial Delivery of Effects from Lightweight Aircraft (ADELA) program. It uses much commercial off–the–shelf hardware to reduce cost and development time. For instance, the system is controlled using a Xbox 360 video game controller.


The BAE Systems Mantis Unmanned Autonomous System Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrator is a British demonstrator programme for Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) technology.

The General Atomics MQ-1 Predator is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) built by General Atomics and used primarily by the United States Air Force (USAF) and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Initially conceived in the early 1990s for aerial reconnaissance and forward observation roles, the Predator carries cameras and other sensors but has been modified and upgraded to carry and fire two AGM-114 Hellfire missiles or other munitions (UCAV). The aircraft, in use since 1995, has seen combat over Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bosnia, Serbia, Iraq, Yemen, Libya, Syria, and Somalia.
The USAF describes the Predator as a "Tier II" MALE UAS (medium-altitude, long-endurance unmanned aircraft system)


A powered exoskeleton, also known as powered armor, exoframe, or exosuit, is a mobile machine consisting primarily of an outer framework (akin to an insect's exoskeleton) worn by a person, and powered by a system of motors or hydraulics that delivers at least part of the energy for limb movement.
The main function of a powered exoskeleton is to assist the wearer by boosting their strength and endurance. They are commonly designed for military use, to help soldiers carry heavy loads both in and out of combat. In civilian areas, similar exoskeletons could be used to help firefighters and other rescue workers survive dangerous environments. The medical field is another prime area for exoskeleton technology, where it can be used for enhanced precision during surgery, or as an assist to allow nurses to move heavy patients.


In 2013, The Washington Post reported that the CIA had by far the largest budget in the Intelligence Community, exceeding previous estimates. The CIA has increasingly taken on offensive roles, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center (IOC), has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations.
Several CIA activities have attracted criticism. They include nonconsensual human experiments, extraordinary rendition, enhanced interrogation techniques (torture), targeted killings, assassinations and the funding and training of militants who would go on to kill civilians and non-combatants.


PROWLER was a mid-1980s experimental robot mobile sentry gun device. The name was an acronym standing for "Programmable Robot Observer With Logical Enemy Response".
The Logical Enemy Response was twin M60 machine guns, and a grenade launcher. PROWLER was "the first outdoor robotic sentry/surveillance system."



pla pla pla an many other old toys... that truly look like 1800 steam engine compared to to microprocessors compared to what we got actually today. KNow, that is already.  But even this, is "far out" for many of Earthlands New People and as for in case of robotic plants there is still more to evolve to fool animals, they say in labs.

 Also to take look, if interested from subject, at:
 http://www.quazoo.com/q/Military_robots
http://globaluv.net/category/land/

http://www.elertgadget.com/rsselertlibrary/darpa_uses_sound_to_put_out_fires_1435432.htm
The US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Darpa) is investigating ways to put out fires using sound.Darpa launched the Instant Fire Suppression (IFS) programme to look at radical new approaches to firefighting back in 2008.
Blasting sound Last year, researchers began experimenting.
"From a physics perspective, flames are cold plasmas. Darpa theorised that by using physics techniques rather than combustion chemistry, it might be possible to manipulate and extinguish flames," the agency explained on its information page.
Two approaches were selected - using electromagnetics and acoustics to suppress a flame.
One of the technologies explored was a hand-held electrode to suppress small methane gas and liquid fuel fires.
In another experiment the team of researchers used speakers to blast sound at specific frequencies that extinguish the flame.
"The acoustic field increases the air velocity. As the velocity goes up, the flame boundary layer, where combustion occurs, thins, making it easier to disrupt the flame," the website explained.





INternet timelines from USA public point of view:
http://tremblinguterus.blogspot.com/2012/10/history-of-cyber-threats-age-of.html
http://wwwmcc.murdoch.edu.au/ReadingRoom/VID/jfk/t-line2.htm
http://wwwmcc.murdoch.edu.au/ReadingRoom/VID/jfk/t-line1.htm

Year 1642: "At age 19, Blaise Pascal (France) constructs the first mechanical calculator and offers it for sale. The machine is capable of adding and subtracting."
Year 1679: Gottfried Leibniz (Germany) designs a machine for multiplication and division
Year 1864: "Charles Babbage, inventor of machine computing, designs a mechanical computer, or "difference engine", assisted by Byron's daughter Ada Lovelace. The machine could perform calculations and print the results, but neither this machine nor his later "analytical engine" are constructed in his lifetime, due to practical and financial difficulties ("though construction of one began in London in the 1990s"
Year 1851: "The English Channel gets the first underwater cable"

Year 1911: "Tabulating Machine Company of the US becomes International Business Machines."
Year 1918: "The US government introduces the first wire-tap law. Law enforcement agencies use it for counter-espionage, but soon it is used to fight crime. Tapped conversations can be admitted as evidence."

Year 1928: "The US government defends the use of wire-tapping in Olmstead vs. US, arguing that the Fourth Amendment only protects material things; non-material communications can thus be legally tapped by the government"
Year 1943: "The most advanced computer is the ASCC Mark 1, "developed at Harvard University with backing from IBM". It is 51 feet long, weighs 5 tons and consists of 750,000 parts. IBM chairman Thomas Watson is quoted as saying: "I think there is a world market for maybe 5 computers.""
Year 1950: "At MIT's Lincoln Lab, the US Navy and Air Force support the Whirlwind machine, a system for Distant Early Warning (DEW) comprising a network of radars. It is one of the first fully interactive real-time systems that can provide answers within a few seconds. Info flows through phone lines to the users."

Year 1950: "Licklider goes away and starts thinking about computers' potential to transform society. With computers, most citizens would be "informed about, and interested in, and involved in, the process of government""
Year 1950: "There are less than a dozen electronic computers. They are so big that they fill entire "air-conditioned warehouses""

Year 1950: Douglas Engelbart (who happened to be a radar operator during World War II) envisions interactive computing with keyboard and screen display (instead of on punchcards), as a way of managing an ever increasingly complex world of technology
Year 1952-1953: "President Truman forms the NSA (National Security Agency) to protect US "executive and military communications".
Year 1957:
"There is widespread panic that the Sputnik proved Soviet capability to launch ICBMs. Eisenhower looks to the scientific community for advice. (He distrusts the military.)

"Eisenhower was the first president to host a White House dinner specifically to single out the scientific and engineering communities as guests of honour, just as the Kennedys would later play host to artists and musicians.""

Internet starting to warm up...
Year 1958: "Eisenhower forms the ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) to stem rivalries in the military for R&D funding. Budget is approved for $2 billion.
NASA is formed. Space projects and missile programmes are transferred from ARPA to NASA or passed back to the military. ARPA's budget is slashed to $150 million.

Roy Johnson resigns, leaving instructions to consider 4 choices for the future of ARPA: Abolish ARPA / Expand ARPA / No change /Redefine ARPA's mission.
"ARPA reshapes itself by detaching itself from the Pentagon and focusing on long-term research efforts, in contrast to the Defence Department's short-term goals. ARPA would fund the really advanced "far-out" research. Most importantly, ARPA begins to tap the universities where the best scientific talents are located. ARPA becomes a "high-risk, high-gain" research sponsor.
ARPA begins to have a distinctive style, and its small size allows "the personality of its director to permeate the whole organisation"."

Year 1959: "Between 1959 and 1964, US R&D spending rises from $5 billion annually to $13 billion annually. That's 3% of the GNP"
Baran visits the Pentagon. He sees that computer networks could be made more "robust and reliable" by introducing redundant links. Independently of Licklider and Engelbart, he imagines "the future of digital technology and the symbiosis between humans and machines

At the same time, time-sharing — an alternative to batch processing — is catching on.
Time-sharing on the other hand gives interactive access to many users via terminals. Users interact directly with the mainframe, with the illusion that they have the computer all to themselves, when in fact they have only a fraction of the computing power. However, the direct access of time-sharing eliminates the long wait in the case of batch processing.

(as of today people have all small terminal with self processor to make work and contribute back to main net of a digital computer brina used by advanced research to deep study a human interactions and any possible valubale info that humans have heard or understand )


Year 1965: "The first minicomputer is produced in the US. "
pl pla pla

 Year 1983: "On January 1st, ARPANET makes its official transition to TCP/IP. The network can now branch anywhere, and network data transfer is a piece of cake. For security reasons, the Defense Communications Agency splits the ARPANET into MILNET for sites carrying military information and ARPANET for the research community.
The two networks are connected by a gateway, so users can't tell the difference."
Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris (ISI) and Craig Partridge (BBN) publish two RFCs describing the Domain Name System (DNS) using tree-branching structure and specific-to-general addressing. "Eventually, a committee agreed on seven 'top-level' domains: edu, com, gov, mil, net, org and int." They stand for:
More than 70 CSNET sites are online.
Year 1986:
NSF takes over Internet The NSF (National Science Foundation) takes over Internet responsibility from DARPA

Other countri networks: CDNet in Canada, The JANET (Joint Academic Network) in the UK,  Several academic service networks in Europe,
Year 1989: "Mark Pullen, a program manager at DARPA, retires the ARPANET, since the much faster NSFNET has taken over as the major backbone. ARPANET is 20 years old"

Year 1990: "Wired networks number over 7,500 worldwide, reaching people in more than 75 countries"
Year 1990: "Internet users are estimated to number 5 to 10 million"
(how they estimate, not know?)
Year 1991:

"The National Science Foundation (NSF) lifts restrictions against commercial use of the Internet. Electronic commerce on the Net is now possible. Some of the early founders of the Net bemoan this, while others welcome it"
Phil Zimmerman releases the PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) encrypting programme, PGP-encoded messages are virtually uncrackable by today's computers. PGP has become the de facto standard for e-mail encryption.

Unable to get a licence for the RSA algorithm, and with an impending ban on strong cryptography, Zimmerman releases PGP 1.0, knowing that it is illegal.
RSA threatens to sue unless Zimmerman stops distributing PGP. Although he complies, the programme and its source code are already circulating on the Net
PGP attracts attention from the National Security Agency (NSA) — part of the US Defence Department in charge of encryption. NSA believes that encryption should only be used by the government to fight crime and win wars.
The combined effort of supporters from the Netherlands, New Zealand, France and Spain results in PGP 2.0. NSA gets really pissed off by the fact that the technology is in foreign hands.
Apple releases the Powerbook laptop microcomputer, able to function as a desktop.
"Back in 1976, Scientific American offered a reward to decrypt an RSA code. An international team from 24 countries finally takes 8 months and 1600 workstations to crack the code"
Year: 1994:

Digital Telephony is legislated. It requires phone companies to re-wire their networks so that the FBI can tap in. Civil rights supporters like Senator Leahy and the Electronic Freedom Foundation work to delete on-line information services from the legislation. Court orders are also required.
The civil rights supporters include AT&T, DEC, Lotus, Microsoft and Sun Microsystems.
Year 1995 There are 30 to 40 million Internet users in the world (estimated).
Year 2015: OWer half of the planet any anyone with low cost is able to access internet or own a computer in virtually any part of world.

 - this is just ower 50-60 years from the estimated "5 computers in a world potentially" by smart man of the academic times. We got now quatium computer in miniature size that is in some envoriement more powerful then millions of computers around the world combined.  And one home cell phone now is more powerful thousands of times then combined state of the art master computers just 30 years ago.
So to make plans in this world only in need with in 10-20 years is clearly to little. For us .:. we look these plants that will stay, and that we want to stay, same in next millenium.





"We Help Plus
Including We Heal Plus
and We Heal Animals"


We Help Plus uses Dynamic TVEMFTM Known also as Dynamic PEMFTM or PEMF 4GTM. Current PEMF units use PEMF developed in the 1990's. We are 2 generations ahead of that technology with the next two generations soon to be introduced.

A picture of the We Heal Plus device and the results of rabbit studies can be seen by by looking at the presentation Initial Rabbit Studies showing breakthrough of the technology
Prior to this breakthrough, the best results that had been obtained by PEMF (others current technology) were a combined university showing that 17% of a bone could be repaired in 28 days. Our results showed a nearly 100% repair of the bone.

The WeHealPlus device works by using Faraday's law of induction which says that the first time derivative of the magnetic field is proportionally related to the induced electric field. It is this law that makes things work like electrical transformers, electric motors, and magnetic audio and video tape. Based on these known laws WeHealPlus has calculated the type of magnetic field necessary to generate an induced electrical field in the paracellular space around each cell that is in the right range of amplitude and duration to elicit a cellular response. These calculations are based on classical physiology where amplitude is equal to Rheobase and duration is equal to Chronaxie.

There is an abundance of literature, at least 800 peer-reviewed papers, supporting the fact that electrical shock and electrical currents can induce significant acceleration of restoration in bone tissue and other tissues (tendon and ligament, albeit with less scientific support in the literature). But the problem has always been (a) locating electrodes close enough to and properly placed around the bones to be stimulated electrically, and (b) the fact that free electrical current follows a random path of least resistance resembling a lightning bolt. A few cells directly in the path of the "lightening bolt" will be hyper-stimulated, while the other 99% of cells outside the "lightening bolt" receive essentially no stimulation.
No electrodes, non-invasive
Electrodes do not need to be implanted as is usually necessary for electrically stimulating bone. The WeHealPlus device uses absolutely no electrodes and is completely non-invasive.

Tissue subjected to minimum stress
Because the WeHealPlus device simulates ion flow from a simulated mechanical stress without actually applying mechanical stress, the tissue does not get subjected to additional stresses.



Finally, the WeHealPlus is fundamentally different from other suppliers of magnetic pulse devices. While some may use the NASA research results from the 1990's, their implementations do not embody the further and very critical research done by Dr. Dennis in the years since. WeHealPlus is the only group that has actually calculated and tuned the magnetic pulses to induce electrical fields that make sense physiologically to the cells being stimulated. The WeHealPlus device does not simply send out pulses of arbitrary duration, amplitude, frequency or shape. The pulse amplitude and duration are carefully selected based on Rheobase and Chronaxie measurements mentioned above, and the repeating patterns of these pulses are selected based upon known motor-neuron stimulation patterns for musculoskeletal tissues. Both fast-twitch (power) and slow-twitch (postural) muscular activity are emulated.
Dr. Dennis currently holds the title Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering and Applied Sciences and Engineering at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has held faculty positions at the University of Michigan, Harvard University, and MIT, as well as a Visiting Scholar position at the Dental School at the University of Alexandria in Egypt. He has also served his community as a firefighter, retiring as Fire Chief in 2009 to focus his effort on developing the WeHealPlus technology.



Example of one of the people CV related to what is talked in this page:http://www.clemson.edu/cbbs/departments/air-rotc/documents/


http://www.wehealanimals.com/bob/
CV:
ROBERT GLENN DENNIS, PH.D.
CURRENT ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS:
Assistant Professor, Departments of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chappel Hill.

Assistant Professor, Departments of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI  48109-2007.   bobden_@_umich.edu
Assistant Research Scientist,  Institute of Gerontology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI  48109-2007.
Visiting Research Scientist, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA  02139.    


EDUCATION:
Ph. D.   (1988 – 1996)   Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
M. S.   (1988 – 1992)   Kinesiology (Human Motor Control), Department of Physical Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
M. S.   (1988 – 1992)   Biological Engineering, Bioengineering Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
B.S.E. (M.E.)   (1982 – 1987)   Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.


INSTRUCTIONAL EXPERIENCE:
1983-1985   Teaching Assistant/Laboratory Instructor  ME101: Mechanical drawing.  Provided laboratory instruction, assignment and grading of examinations.
1990-1991   Instructor  Biomechanics 330: Introductory mechanics and joint biomechanics.  Redesigned an existing course. Kinesiology Dept., U-Mich.
1990-1991   Instructor  Biomechanics 430: Musculoskeletal Tissue Mechanics.  Designed an entirely new course offering in tissue biomechanics, using an existing course number. Kinesiology Department, University of Michigan.
1993   Teaching Assistant  Physiology 519: Quantitative Physiology.  Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Physiology, University of Michigan.
1998-1999   Instructor  Biomedical Eng. 450: Biomedical Design.  Developed the capstone design course for the newly-formed Department of Biomedical engineering.  Instructed the course for the first two terms it was offered. Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Mich.
2001 - Present  Professor, ME450: Design and Manufacturing III (Senior Mechanical Design)
1997 - Present   Guest Lecturer for the following courses:  Bio 428: Cell Biology;  BME 295: Biomedical Eng Survey;  ME 456: Biomechanics;  BME 590: Cellular and Molecular Biomechanics; BME 800, FTE Seminar Series;  CDB 682: Organogenesis of Complex Systems: Skeletal Muscle;  BME 519: Quantitative Physiology. BMME 231: Principles of Tissue Engineering (Albert Banes, Instructor): Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering, Annual Lecture at UNC Chapel Hill, NC.


RESEARCH AND PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE:
1985-1986   Engineering Intern   Hughes Aircraft Co., Electro-Optical & Data Systems Group.  Designed and tested components and processes for kinetic energy anti-satellite weapons systems.
1987-1988   Electro-Mechanical Engineer   Lectron Products Inc., Rochester Hills, MI  48308.  Designed and numerically modeled electromechanical components for electronic automatic transmissions, fluid level sensors, and electromechanical actuators.
1989-1991   Technician and Machinist   Environmental Research Institute of MI, Ann Arbor, MI.  Designed test fixtures for the materials testing laboratory while in graduate school.
1990-1991   Research Collaborator   Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, U-Mich.  Designed implantable micro-power electronic stimulator systems to re-engineer latissimus dorsi muscle (in vivo) for use in a transposition surgical technique as a biologic left ventricular assist device.  Also numerically modeled aortic flow through a distensible aorta, and designed incidental instrumentation and test fixturing (sonomicrometers, stents, data acquisition system interface electronics).
1992-1996   Research Assistant   Muscle Mechanics Laboratory (Advisor: John A. Faulkner). U-Mich.  During graduate school, provided engineering design and fabrication support for a muscle physiology laboratory.
1993-1996   Owner and Chief Engineer   Bio Logic Engineering Inc., Dexter, MI.  Founded a small instrumentation design company, based in Dexter, MI.  Designed custom instrumentation for automotive, energy, and medical concerns.  Designs included high-precision engine valve positioners for flow test benches at Ford Motor Company, a diagnostic device for blepharoptosis, an optical disdrometer for quantitative measurement of the size and velocity of atmospheric precipitants, and timing and control fixturing for hydrogen sulfide embrittlement testing.
1996-1998   Research Investigator   Institute of Gerontology, U- Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.  First research faculty appointment.  Initiated the Functional Muscle Tissue Engineering research core within the Muscle Mechanics Laboratory at the University of Michigan.
1998-1999   Director  Mechanotransduction Core   Nathan Shock Center of Excellence, IoG, U-M.  Provided support for the design of experiments and instrumentation in the area of mechanotransduction in musculoskeletal tissues.
1998-Present   Assistant Research Scientist Institute of Gerontology, U- Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
1998-2001   Assistant Research Scientist   Dept. of Biomedical Eng., U- Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
1999-Present   Co-founder  Biomechatronics Group  MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Cambridge, MA.  With Hugh Herr, Ph.D., Co-founded the Biomechatronics group within the Artificial intelligence laboratory at MIT to develop muscle-based robotic actuators and hybrid prosthetic devices.  Designed, built and tested the first muscle actuated robot in September, 2000.
1999-2001   Research Scientist   Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge MA.  Jointly appointed between the University of Michigan, MIT, and Harvard on the primary research staff.
1999-2001   Research Scientist  MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Biomechatronics Group, Cambridge MA.
2001-Present   Visiting Research Scientist   Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge MA.
2001-Present   Visiting Research Scientist  MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Biomechatronics Group, Cambridge MA.
2001-Present   Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
2001-Present   Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI


PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES:
1985-1987 American society for metals (ASM)
Ad Hoc Reviewer: Journal of Applied Physiology, Biotechnology & Bioengineering; Mathematical Biosciences; Transactions on Biomedical Engineering.
Member of the Center for Biomedical Engineering Research (CBER), University of Michigan (1997-2000).
Advisor, Formula SAE student Team Advisor (2002 - )


TRAINING AND LICENSES:
FCC Amateur Radio License:  KC8PTJ  Technician Class.
Class 100 Clean Room Operations, Hughes Aircraft Company.
Operation of Cryogenic and Environmental Test Facilities, Hughes Aircraft Company.
Microisolation Techniques for SPF Animal Facilities, University of Michigan.


CONSULTING:
1991-1992   Section of Thoracic Surgery, U-Mich.: Left Ventricular Assist Device.
1996-Present   NASA-Johnson Space Center; Bioreactor Design for Microgravity Cell Culture.
1998-1999   Environmental Astrobiology Research Center, Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans LA; Member, Scientific Advisory Board (1998-1999).
2000-2002   Cell Based Delivery, Inc. Providence RI. (Current).
2001-Present   Protein Construction Inc., Seattle WA. (Currnet).
2002-Present   Tissue Genesis, Inc. Honolulu, HI.


PATENTS AND TECHNOLOGY DISCLOSURES:
1. Cole, N.M., and Dennis, R.G.,  Single-wave linear interferometric force transducer.  U.S. Patent Number 5,555,470.
2. Dennis, R.G., Kosnik, P.E, System and method for emulating an in vivo environment of a muscle tissue specimen.  [system claims] U.S. Pat. No. 6,114,164.
3. Dennis, R.G., Kosnik, P.E., Kuzon, W.M. and Faulkner, J.A.,  Mammalian Muscle Construct and Method for Producing Same
U.S. Patent No. 6,207,451   (issued 27 March 2001)
4. Dennis, R.G., Kosnik, P.E  System and method for emulating an in vivo environment of a tissue specimen.  U.S. Pat. No. 6,303,286  (issued 16 October 2001)
5. Dennis; Robert G., Kuzon, Jr.; William M., Cederna; Paul S.  Method for chemically acellularizing a biological tissue sample   U.S Patent No 6,448,076 (issued 9/10/02)


HONORS AND AWARDS:
1995-1996 Whitaker Fellow, Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering, U-M, Ann Arbor, MI
Calderon, M., Goldman, D., Dennis, R.G., Kuzon, W.  (Co-supervisor), Clifford F. Snyder Past Chairmans’ Research Award, 44th Annual Meeting, Plastic Surgery Research Council. 1999, Myogenic regulatory factor expression in satellite cells cultured from adult and old rat skeletal muscles.
Haase, S., Cederna, P., Dennis, R.G., Kuzon, W.  (Co-supervisor), Outstanding Research Presentation, Annual Resident Research Forum, 19 April 2000, St. Joseph Mercy Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Acellular Nerve Grafts for Nerve Gap Repair.
Mechanical Engineering Teaching Incentive Fund Award for Core Undergraduate Course Instruction: ME450 (Capstone Senior Design) Fall 2001
Professor of the Term: Pi Tau Sigma, the Mechanical Engineering Honor Society at the University of Michigan (Fall 2002).
Outstanding Faculty Achievement Award, Depertment of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, (March 2003).
Ruth and Joel Spira Outstanding Teaching Award, University of Michigan College of Engineering (April 2003)


UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN COMMITTEE SERVICE:
1997-2003   Graduate Education Committee, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
1998            Curriculum Task force, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
1998-2001   Qualifying Examination Coordinator, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
1999-2000   College of Engineering Safety Committee, University of Michigan College of Engineering
2002 -          Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Program Committee (member)


DOCTORAL COMMITTEES:
1. Paul Kosnik, Ph.D., completed May 2000. Contractile Properties of Engineered Skeletal Muscle (Robert Dennis and John Faulkner, Co-Chairs), Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan.
2. Mark Palmer, completed May 2002 (Scott Hollister, Chair), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan.
3. Douglas Dow, completed August 2002 (Robert Dennis and John Faulkner, Co-Chairs), Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan.
4. Janeta Nikolovski, completed June 2002 (David Mooney, Ph.D., Chair), Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan.
5. Rupak Rajachar, (David Kohn, Ph.D., Chair), Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan.
6. Thomas Goodwin, Completed August 2002, (NASA Johnson Space Center), the Union Institute.
7. Erik Rader (Robert Dennis and John Faulkner, Co-chairs)  Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan.
8. William L. Murphy, completed August 2002 (David Mooney, Chair)   Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan.
9. Yen-Chih Huang (Robert Dennis, Chair)  Department of Biomedical Engineering.University of Michigan.
10. Gary Brouhard (Alan Hunt, Chair)  Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan.
11. Henry (Trey) Schek (Alan Hunt, Chair)  Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan.
12. Ravi K Birla (Robert Dennis, Chair)  Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan
13. Jeongsup Shim  (Shuichi Takayama, Chair)  Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan.
14. Ajit P. Joglekar (Alan Hunt, Chair) Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan.
15. Sarah Calve (Ellen Arruda, Chair)  Macromolecular Sciences, University of Michigan.
16. Mike Ominsky (Steve Goldstein, Chair)  Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan.
17. Joseph Mulka (Robert Dennis, Chair)  Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan.
18. Mai T. Lam (Robert Dennis, Chair)  Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan.
19. Juan M. Taboas (Scott Hollister & Paul Krebsbach, Co-Chairs)  Department of Biomedical Engieering, University of Michigan.
20. Elliott E Hill (David Mooney, Chair), Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan.




INVITED SPEAKER:
1.  7th Annual Summer Training Course in Experimental Aging Research. Tissue engineering of skeletal muscle from aged mammals. Ann Arbor, MI, June 13-17, 1999. (Organized by Richard Miller, M.D., Ph.D.).
2. Pittsburgh Orthopaedic Tissue Engineering Symposium.  Isometric contractile properties of mammalian skeletal muscle constructs engineered in vitro.  Pittsburgh, PA, April 16-19, 2000.
3. Functional Tissue Engineering Workshop, 1st annual, Engineered skeletal muscle and neuromuscular tissues, September 14-17, 2000, Tampa, FL, (organizing committee; David L. Butler, Steven A. Goldstein, Farshid Guilak, David J. Mooney).
4. Workshop on Biological Motors ( DARPA ).  An Actin-Myosin Machine.  October 23, 2000, Arlington, VA. (Organized by Alan Rudolph, Ph.D., Robert Nowak, Ph.D., and Keith Ward, Ph.D.)
5. Controlled Biological and Biomimetic Systems (CBBS) Program Review (DARPA), Living Muscle actuators.  Breckenridge, CO, March 18-21, 2001.
6. DARPA Self-Aid Concept Development Workshop (DARPA/DSO),  In Vitro Tissue Engineering of Muscle and Nerve.  Potomac Institute, Arlington, VA, May 23-24, 2001.
7. Defense Sciences Research Council (DSRC)  Functional Tissue and Interface Engineering. July 9, 2001 DSRC Summer Conference (Portland, OR).
8. DARPA-DSO Biomolecular Motors Workshop.  Cell and Tissue-Based Mechanical Actuators.  October 22, 2001, Arlington, VA.
9. AAOS/NIH (Americal Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons)  Functional Self-Organized Muscle Tissue from Myogenic Cells in Virto.  Tissue Engineering in Musculoskeletal Clinical Practice Workshop, January 13-19, Santa Fe, NM.
10. Engineering Tissues 2003.  Self-organizing Tissue Constructs In Vitro:  Tendon & Ligament, Bone, and Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle.  Hilton Head, Sea Pines Resort, Feb 26 - March 2, 2003.
Publications provided on request



Some Winners:
http://www.defense.gov/news/Feb2001/d20010202muri.pdf


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seabee also cute logo ;)
 http://www.nethistory.info/Resources/Internet-BR-Dissertacao-Mestrado-MSavio-v1.2.pdf

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