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November 2015 Paris attacks

November 2015 Paris attacks
Parisattacks.png
Locations of the attacks
Location Paris, France
Saint-Denis, France
1: near Stade de France[note 1]
2: Rue Bichat and rue Alibert (Le Petit Cambodge; Le Carillon)[note 2]
3: Rue de la Fontaine-au-Roi (Café Bonne Bière; La Casa Nostra)[note 3]
4: The Bataclan theatre[note 4]
5: Rue de Charonne (La Belle Équipe)[note 5]
Stars denote individual suicide bombings (excl. Bataclan)
Date 13 November 2015 –
14 November 2015
21:20 – 00:58 (CET)
Attack type
Mass shooting, hit-and-run tactics, bombing, hostage-taking, suicide attack
Weapons
Deaths 139, of which
  • 129 immediate victims[2]
  • 7 perpetrators[3]
  • 3 died in hospital after the event.[4]
Non-fatal injuries
430,[5] including 80 seriously;[6]
Suspected perpetrators
Affiliates of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)
  • Abdelhamid Abaaoud
  • Bilal Hadfi
  • Ahmed Almuhamed
  • Samy Amimour
  • Omar Ismaël Mostefai
  • Ibrahim Abdeslam
  • Abbdulakbak B.
  • at least two other ISIL affiliates
  • at least 12 suspected accomplices[7][8][9]
On the evening of 13 November 2015, a series of coordinated terrorist attacks—consisting of mass shootings, suicide bombings, and hostage-taking—occurred in the French capital Paris and its northern suburb of Saint-Denis. Beginning at 21:20 CET, there were three suicide bombings outside the Stade de France, along with mass shootings and another suicide bombing at four locations near central Paris.[10] The deadliest of those attacks took place at the Bataclan theatre, where terrorists took hostages before engaging in a stand-off with police until 00:58 on 14 November.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) claimed responsibility for the attacks[11][12][13] and French President François Hollande stated that he considered the attack to be "an act of war" carried out by ISIL.[14][15][16]
The attacks killed 129 people,[2][17] 89 of whom were at the Bataclan theatre.[18][19][20][21] Another 433 people were admitted to hospital with injuries sustained in the attacks,[5] including 80 described as being critically injured.[6] In addition to the victims, seven attackers died, and the authorities continued to search for any accomplices remaining at large.[3] The attacks were the deadliest in France since World War II,[22][23] and the deadliest in Europe since the Madrid train bombings in 2004.[24]
In response, a state of emergency was declared, the first since the 2005 riots,[24] and temporary controls were placed on the country's borders.[19] Paris was also placed under curfew for the first time since World War II.[25] People and organisations expressed solidarity including through social media. On 15 November, France launched its largest single airstrike of Opération Chammal, its contribution to the anti-ISIL bombing campaign, by striking targets in Al-Raqqah, Syria, in retaliation for the attacks.[26]
Prior to the attack, France had been bombing various targets in the Middle East, including Syria, since October 2015.[27] ISIL's stated motive was retaliation for French involvement in the Syrian Civil War and Iraqi Civil War.[28][29] In the weeks leading up to the attacks, ISIL had claimed responsibility for several attacks, such as twin suicide bombings in Beirut two days earlier, and the crashing of Metrojet Flight 9268 on 31 October. France had been on high alert since the January 2015 attacks in Paris that killed 17 people, including civilians and police officers.[8]

Contents

Background

The French military began airstrikes in Iraq on 19 September 2014 in an operation known as Operation Chammal. In October 2015, French aircraft struck targets in Syria for the first time.[27] ISIL mentioned the airstrikes when they claimed responsibility for the November 2015 attacks.[30]
France had been on high alert for terrorism since the Charlie Hebdo shooting and a series of related attacks in early January 2015.[8] France had also increased security in anticipation of the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, scheduled to be held in Paris from 30 November to 11 December 2015, and had restored border checks a week before the attacks.[8] The Charlie Hebdo shooting in January 2015 occurred in the 11th arrondissement (district) of the city, where the Bataclan theatre is situated.[31] France witnessed other, smaller, attacks throughout 2015, including the stabbing of three soldiers in Nice guarding a Jewish community centre in February;[32] an attempt to blow up a factory in Saint-Quentin-Fallavier in June, resulting in the death of an employee;[33] and a shooting and stabbing attack on a train in August.[34]
Two Jewish brothers, Pascal and Joël Laloux,[35][36] owned the Bataclan theatre for more than 40 years until they sold it in September 2015.[37] The venue had been threatened several times because of their public support for Israel. In 2011, a group calling itself "Army of Islam" told French security services they had planned an attack on the Bataclan because its owners were Jewish.[38][39][40]
ISIL and their branches claimed responsibility for numerous deadly attacks which took place in the weeks leading up to the Paris attacks. On 12 November 2015, twin suicide bombings took place in Beirut, Lebanon, killing 43 people. On 31 October 2015, Metrojet Flight 9268, carrying mostly Russian passengers crashed in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, killing 224 people, for which ISIL's Sinai branch claimed responsibility. On the day of the attacks, ISIL's lead executioner, Jihadi John, had probably been killed by a US drone strike[41] and ISIL lost control of Sinjar to Kurdish forces.[42] ISIL social media outlets shared images of weapons, the Eiffel Tower and blessings to the perpetrators 72 hours prior to the attacks.[43]
The Paris attacks happened on the first day of the Muslim lunar month of Safar. Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 11 to 12 days shorter than the solar year, Safar migrates through the seasons. ISIL has referred to the Paris attacks as a "ghazwa" (religious raid).[44] When performed within the context of Islamic warfare, a ghazwa‍ '​s function is to weaken and demoralise an enemy in preparation for their eventual conquest and subjugation.[45]
Intelligence agencies of Turkey, Iraq, and Israel had warned of an imminent attack on French soil months before and even the day before the attacks but got no response from French authorities.[46]

Attacks

Timeline of attacks
13 November:
  • 21:20 – First suicide bombing near the Stade de France.[10]
  • 21:25 – Shooting at the rue Bichat.[10]
  • 21:30 – Second suicide bombing near the Stade de France.[10]
  • 21:32 – Shooting at the rue de la Fontaine-au-Roi.[10]
  • 21:36 – Shooting at the rue de Charonne.[10]
  • 21:40 – Suicide bombing on boulevard Voltaire.[10]
  • 21:40 – Three men enter the Bataclan theatre and begin shooting.[10]
  • 21:53 – Third suicide bombing near the Stade de France.[10]
  • 22:00 – Hostages are taken at the Bataclan.[47]
14 November:
  • 00:20 – Security forces enter the Bataclan.[10]
  • 00:58 – French police end the siege on the Bataclan.[47]
All times are CET (UTC+1).
Three teams[48] launched seven distinct attacks,[49] comprising four suicide bombings and six shootings.[50][51] Three explosions occurred near the Stade de France and another on boulevard Voltaire; two of the Bataclan shooters also detonated their suicide vests as police ended the stand-off.[52] Shootings were reported in the vicinity of the rue Alibert, the rue de la Fontaine-au-Roi, the rue de Charonne, the Bataclan theatre and avenue de la République.[31][53][54][55] According to the Paris prosecutor, the attackers wearing suicide vests used acetone peroxide as an explosive.[56]

Stade de France explosions


President François Hollande was at the Stade de France during the attacks.
Three explosions occurred near the country's national sports stadium, the Stade de France, in the suburb of Saint-Denis, resulting in four deaths, including the three suicide bombers.[57] The explosions happened at 21:20, 21:30, and 21:53.[58] The first explosion near the stadium was about 20 minutes after the start of an international friendly football match between France and Germany, which President François Hollande was attending.[20][59] The first bomber was prevented from entering the stadium after a security guard patted him down and discovered the suicide vest;[60] a few seconds after being turned away, he detonated his suicide vest, killing himself and a bystander.[61] Ten minutes after the first bombing, the second bomber blew himself up near the stadium. Another 33 minutes after that, the third bomber detonated his vest nearby at a McDonald's.[60][62][63]
Hollande was evacuated from the scene at half-time, while the German foreign minister, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, stayed behind.[19][64] Hollande met with his interior minister Bernard Cazeneuve to coordinate a response to the emergency.[65] Two of the explosions were heard on the live televised broadcast of the match; both football coaches were informed by French officials of a developing crisis, but players and fans were kept unaware of it until the game had finished.[66] Following the game, fans were brought onto the pitch to await evacuation as police monitored all the exits around the venue.[8] Security sources said all three explosions were suicide bombings.[8]
The German national football team was advised not to return to their hotel, where there had been a bomb threat earlier in the day, and they spent the night in the stadium on mattresses, along with the French team, who stayed with them in a display of camaraderie.[67] The attacks were seven months before France was due to host the UEFA Euro 2016 tournament.[60]

Street shootings and bombings

Rue Bichat and rue Alibert

At approximately 21:20, the first shootings occurred on the rue Bichat and the rue Alibert, near the Canal Saint-Martin in the 10th arrondissement. Attackers shot at people outside Le Carillon, a café and bar,[68] before crossing the rue Bichat and shooting people inside the restaurant Le Petit Cambodge. According to French police, eleven people were killed at the restaurant,[19] and an eyewitness said one of the gunmen shouted "Allahu Akbar". The assailants fled in one or two vehicles after the shootings.[69] One of the vehicles was spotted with a Belgian number plate.[70] Doctors and nurses from the nearby Hôpital Saint-Louis were in Le Carillon when the attacks happened and supplied emergency assistance to the wounded.[70]

Rue de la Fontaine-au-Roi

At 21:32, a man with a machine gun fired shots outside Café Bonne Bière,[58] close to the Italian restaurant La Casa Nostra, on the rue de la Fontaine-au-Roi south of the rue Bichat. The Paris prosecutor said five people were killed and eight were injured.[19] An eyewitness reported a gunman firing short bursts.[71]

Rue de Charonne

At approximately 21:36, two attackers fired shots for several minutes at the outdoor terrace of the restaurant La Belle Équipe on the rue de Charonne in the 11th arrondissement before returning to their car and driving away.[20][72] Nineteen people were killed and nine were left in a critical condition.[72]

Boulevard Voltaire bombing

At about 21:40, an attacker detonated his suicide vest on the boulevard Voltaire, also in the 11th arrondissement, near place de la Nation.[8] He sat down in the Comptoir Voltaire cafe and placed an order before detonating his suicide vest and killing himself. Fifteen people were injured, one of them seriously.[72][73]

Bataclan theatre massacre


The Bataclan theatre in 2009
At approximately 21:45, a mass shooting and hostage-taking occurred at the Bataclan theatre on the boulevard Voltaire in the 11th arrondissement. The American band Eagles of Death Metal was playing at the time to an audience of around 1,500 people.[19][64] American band Deftones, which were scheduled to play at the Bataclan the following night, were among the crowd, but had left before the shooting.[74] About an hour into the concert,[75] three dark-clad men with AK-47 assault rifles entered the hall.[8] Witnesses heard shouts of "Allahu Akbar" just before the gunmen opened fire on the crowd.[8][76] Initially, the audience mistook the gunfire for pyrotechnics.[18][77] The attack lasted 20 minutes, and witnesses also reported seeing the attackers throw hand grenades into the crowd.[76] A radio reporter, Julien Pearce, who attended the concert, described the attackers as calm and determined, telling CNN they had reloaded three or four times.[76]
Around 22:00, the attackers took 60–100 concertgoers hostage as police gathered outside the venue.[19][31][76] The band's members, as well as the musicians of the opening act, Austrian rock group White Miles, escaped without injury.[78] A witness who escaped the attack told a journalist that the gunmen had mentioned Syria.[18][79] One witness in the Bataclan said a gunman yelled, "This is because of all the harm done by Hollande to Muslims all over the world."[80][81] There were further attacks on police and first responders who arrived at the scene.[82]
From 00:15 to 00:58, the police launched an assault on the theatre after reports the attackers had begun killing hostages.[8][76][83] Initial police reports estimated that 100 people were killed at the theatre,[18][65] but the toll was later revised to 87.[19] Two attackers died by detonating their suicide vests.[8][18][76] Another was hit by police gunfire and his vest blew up when he fell.[8] The area was cordoned off after the attacks.[84] Identification and removal of bodies from the theatre took 10 hours, a process made difficult because some audience members had left their identification papers in the Bataclan's cloakroom.[85]

Perpetrators

On 14 November, President François Hollande said ISIL organised the attacks abroad with help from inside France.[16] Syrian and Egyptian passports were found near the bodies of two of the perpetrators at two attack sites,[86] although Egyptian authorities later said the passport belonged to a victim, Aleed Abdel-Razzak, and not one of the perpetrators.[87] As of late on 16 November 2015, according to The New York Times, French and Belgian security services were focused on the radical jihadist they believe was the leader of the plot, Abdelhamid Abaaoud,[88] a Belgian of Moroccan origin and currently in Syria who is also suspected in other plots in Belgium and France, including the thwarted 2015 Thalys train attack.[89]

Identification

Seven of the perpetrators died at the scenes.[3]
  • Three suicide bombers detonated their vests near the Stade de France. A Syrian passport was found on one of the suicide bombers, according to French police. The authenticity of the passport was questioned and many analysts pointed out that false Syrian passports can easily be obtained.[90][91][92] Minister of Citizen Protection in Greece Nikos Toskas announced that one of the Syrian passport-holders had passed through Leros in October. The man had been registered and fingerprinted after having arrived by boat from Turkey.[93]
    • Bilal Hadfi, a 20-year-old Belgian who previously fought in Syria with ISIL for over a year and a supporter of Boko Haram.[94]
    • Abbdulakbak B.[95]
  • An attacker detonated his vest on the boulevard Voltaire near the Bataclan theatre.[8] Ibrahim Abdeslam, a 31-year-old member of the Molenbeek terror cell from Belgium, was identified as this bomber.[94]
  • Three attacked the Bataclan theatre wearing black clothing and using AK-47 assault rifles.[8] Two killed themselves with their suicide vests during the police raid on the theatre. The third was killed by police gunfire just before his vest detonated.[8] According to French police, suspects included:
    • Samy Amimour, a 28-year-old from Paris who fought in Yemen.[96]
    • A man carrying a passport which identified him as a 25-year old Syrian native Ahmad Almuhammad.[94] The passport, which is likely to be a forgery made in Turkey, suggested that the man entered France through Greece and Macedonia.[97] Fingerprint similarities were found between those taken from the scene in Paris and those taken during control in Greece.[98]
    • Omar Ismaïl Mostefaï, a 29-year-old from the Paris suburb of Courcouronnes, identified as a bomber by a severed finger found inside the theatre.[94][99]
Omar Ismaïl Mostefaï was born to an Algerian father and a Portuguese mother, converted to Islam.[100][101][102][103] A second gunman was found with a passport of a Syrian man who had been born in 1980. The man on the passport was not previously known to French police.[56] At least one man with a possible connection to the attacks had entered the EU via Greece as a Syrian refugee in October, but the Greek police are not ruling out that the passport changed hands before the attacks.[104] Serbia's interior ministry said his details match those of a suspected terrorist, identified by Serbian authorities only by his initials as Ahmed Almuhamed.[105]
Another man has been identified as Abbdulakbak B.[95] On 15 November 2015, François Molins, the Paris prosecutor, identified two more of the terrorists, stating that one of the men was among the suicide bombers outside the Stade de France and that he was born in France on 22 January 1995, with the second attacker, the suicide bomber who killed himself but no one else in the Comptoir Voltaire restaurant, being born in France, on 30 July 1984.[106]
Three teams executed the attacks, according to the Paris prosecutor. They wore explosive vests with identical detonators.[107] One of the suicide bombers had previously been arrested eight times, but had not been linked to terrorism.[107]

Search for further attackers

Two cars were recovered in Paris after the attacks. One, a Volkswagen Polo with Belgian number plates abandoned near the Bataclan theatre, was rented by a French citizen living in Belgium, and contained a parking ticket from the town of Molenbeek.[108] The other car, a black Seat, was found in the Paris suburb of Montreuil on 15 November, and contained assault rifles.[109] On 14 November, a car was stopped at the Belgium–France border and its three occupants were arrested. Three more people were arrested in Molenbeek, Belgium.[110] Links to the ISIL attack in France were investigated in an arrest in Germany on 5 November, when police stopped a 51-year-old man from Montenegro and found automatic handguns, hand grenades and explosives in his car.[111]
As of 15 November, the French authorities were trying to locate Salah Abdeslam, a 26-year-old Belgian citizen, describing him as dangerous and warning the public not to approach him.[112] According to Belgian officials, his brother, Ibrahim Abdeslam, died in the three-hour massacre on 13 November.[113] Another brother, Mohamed, was detained on 14 November in the Molenbeek area of Brussels but was released after several hours of questioning.[114]
Early on 16 November, French tactical police units raided four locations in northern and southern France and arrested nine people and seized weapons.[115] 23 people were detained and a further 104 placed under house arrest.[116]

Analysis of tactics

Michael Leiter, former director of the United States National Counterterrorism Center, said that the attacks demonstrated great sophistication not seen in a city attack since the 2008 Mumbai attacks and that it would change how the West regards the threat.[117] Further comparisons were made between the Paris attacks and the Mumbai attacks.[118][119][120] Mumbai Police said there were similarities between the two attacks. Mumbai Police Joint Commissioner (Law and Order) Deven Bharti stated "Prima facie the similarity is this- the involvement of multiple targets, indiscriminate firing and use of IEDs."[121][122] According to Bharti, the key difference was that unlike in Mumbai, the attackers in Paris did not attempt to prolong the attack and blew themselves up at the first hint of capture.[123]

ISIL responsibility

ISIL claimed responsibility for the attacks on the morning of 14 November[124][125] in a statement.[126][127] Less than a day after the attacks, its propaganda organ, Al-Hayat Media Group, launched a website on the dark web extolling them and recommending the encrypted chat app Telegram.[128][129]
Motives include ideological objection to Paris as a capital of "abomination and perversion",[130] retaliation for French airstrikes in Syria and Iraq[28] as well as the foreign policy of François Hollande in relation to Muslims worldwide.[131]

Victims

Victims by citizenship
Citizenship Deaths
 France * TBA
 Belgium * 3[132]
 Chile 3[133]
 Algeria 2[134]
 Egypt * 2[135]
 Germany 2[136][137]
 Mexico * 2[133]
 Portugal * 2[138]
 Romania 2[139][140]
 Senegal 2[138]
 Tunisia 2[138]
 Italy 1[141][142]
 Morocco 1[138]
 Spain 1[143]
 Sweden 1[18]
 UK 1[133]
 USA * 1[138]
Total 129[18]
* Some victims had multiple citizenships. Counts are based on preliminary data and may not be complete.
The attacks killed 129 victims and injured 433,[5] with 80 taken to hospital in a serious condition.[6] Of the victims, 89 died at the Bataclan theatre, 15 at Le Carillon and Le Petit Cambodge, 5 at Café Bonne Bière and La Casa Nostra, 1 at Stade de France, and 19 at La Belle Équipe.[2] Victims were confirmed from at least 26 countries (some holding multiple citizenships).
Les Inrockuptibles announced that their music critic, Guillaume B. Decherf, was killed at the Bataclan.[144] An executive of Mercury Records France[145] and the merchandise manager of Eagles of Death Metal were among those killed.[146][147]

Aftermath

Local response


In front of restaurants Le Carillon and Le Petit Cambodge on 16 November
The hashtag #portesouvertes ("open doors") was used by Parisians to offer shelter to those afraid to travel home after the attacks.[148]
As had been the case in January, the Place de la République became a focal point of mourning, memorial, and tributes.[149] An impromptu memorial also developed near the Bataclan theatre.[150] On 15 November, two days after the attacks, a memorial service was held at Notre Dame Cathedral, presided over by the Archbishop of Paris, Cardinal André Vingt-Trois, with several political and religious figures in attendance.[151]
Muslim organisations in France such as the Union of Islamic Organisations of France strongly condemned the attacks in Paris.[152][153][154] The attacks affected business at high profile venues and shopping centres in Paris, and many Parisians were concerned the attacks might lead to a marginalisation of Muslims in the city.[155] Calls for solidarity toward Islam were uncommon in Paris following the attacks.[156]

Official response

French governmental response

President François Hollande issued a statement asking the French people to remain strong in the face of the attacks.[157][158] Hollande also visited the Bataclan theatre and vowed to "mercilessly" fight against terrorism.[65] Hollande also chaired an emergency meeting of the French Cabinet that night and directed his national security council to meet the next morning.[65] The authorities urged the residents of Paris to stay indoors for their own safety and declared a State of Emergency.[19][69][159] Hollande cancelled his trip to the 2015 G-20 Antalya summit because of the attacks, instead sending Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius and Finance Minister Michel Sapin as his representatives.[160] On 14 November, Hollande announced three national days of mourning.[161] On 17 November, Hollande convened a special Congress of the French Parliament where he addressed the events of the attack and laid out various legislative and diplomatic plans which he would seek to undertake in response to them. Included in the list of proposals were changes to the French constitution which Hollande suggested would enable a more reactive response to future acts of terrorism, as well as plans to increase French military attacks against ISIL.[162]

Intelligence review


French police gathering evidence at the Bataclan theatre on 14 November
Shortly after the attacks, intelligence staff in multiple countries began to review electronic surveillance recorded before the attacks.[64] The ranking Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives Intelligence Committee, Adam Schiff said he did not know of any intercepted communications that would have provided warning of the attacks.[163]
One source said the French National Police met with German police and intelligence services a month before the attack to discuss suspicions that terrorists were staking out possible targets in France. The exact targets were not known at that time.[164]
Police in Germany stopped a car on 5 November and confiscated weapons that may have been connected to the Paris attacks.[165]

Security changes


Local resident walks her dog on 14 November, the day after the attacks
In response to the attacks, France was put under an état d'urgence (state of emergency) for the first time since 2005,[24] borders were temporarily closed, and 1,500 soldiers were called in to help the police maintain order in Paris.[8][69][166] The plan blanc (Île de France) and plan rouge (global), two contingency plans for times of emergency, were immediately activated.[167][168][169] Belgium tightened security along its border with France and increased security checks for people arriving from France.[19]
Flights to and from Charles de Gaulle Airport and Orly Airport were mostly unaffected.[64] American Airlines delayed flights to Paris until further notice.[170] Many Paris Métro stations in the 10th and 11th arrondissements were shut down because of the attacks.[69][171] Uber suspended car hails in Paris after the attacks.[172]
All state schools and universities in Paris remained closed the next day.[173][174] Sports events in France for the weekend of 14–15 November were postponed or cancelled.[175][176] Disneyland Paris, which had operated every day since opening in 1992, closed its parks as a mark of respect for those who died in the attacks.[174][177] The Eiffel Tower, a Paris landmark visited by 20,000 people a day, was closed indefinitely.[174][178] Other venues that were to remain closed included shops and cinemas.[174] Protests were banned until 19 November,[174] while bands such as U2, Foo Fighters, Motörhead, and Coldplay cancelled performances in Paris.[179]
Cities in the United States took security precautions, especially at sites where large crowds were expected, as well as sports events, concerts, the French embassy and other French government sites.[180][181] New York City Police Commissioner William J. Bratton said the Paris attacks have changed the way law enforcement deals with security.[182] Singapore raised its national security alert level, stepping up border checks and security across the city-state.[183] Police and military authorities in Manila were placed on full alert in preparation for the APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting.[184]

French domestic politics

All major political parties, including Hollande's governing Socialist Party, Marine Le Pen's National Front, and Nicolas Sarkozy's Republicans temporarily suspended their election campaigns for the upcoming French regional elections.[185]

Airstrikes against ISIL

On 15 November, the French Air Force launched the largest air strike of Opération Chammal, its bombing campaign against Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, sending 10 fighters which dropped 20 bombs on Raqqa, the city where ISIL is based.[115] On 16 November the French Air Force dropped more bombs on Raqqa.[186]

International reactions

National Gallery in London in French flag colours, 14 November 2015
Crowds gather to express grief and solidarity in front of the French Embassy, Vienna, 15 November 2015
Many heads of state and heads of government, as well as the United Nations, offered messages of condolence and solidarity in the wake of the attacks.[187]
The attacks prompted European officials—particularly German officials—to re-evaluate their stance on EU policy toward migrants, especially in light of the ongoing European migrant crisis.[188][189] Many German officials believed a higher level of scrutiny was needed, and criticised the position of German Chancellor Angela Merkel, but the German Vice-Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel defended her stance, and pointed out that a lot of migrants were fleeing terrorism.[189]
Poland's European affairs minister designate Konrad Szymański declared that, in the wake of the attacks, he sees no possibility of enacting the recent EU refugee relocation scheme.[190][191] Andrej Babiš, Czech deputy prime minister, proposed closing the Schengen border.[192]
At least 27 US states declared they will refuse to accept Syrian refugees, as they believe it to be too dangerous following the Paris attacks.[193]
On 16 November, there was a minute of silence in Europe at 12:00 p.m. CET as a mark of respect to those who lost their lives,[194][195] and the hacktivist group Anonymous declared war on ISIL.[196]

Muslim officials

Muslim heads of state[197], scholars, imams, leaders and groups condemned the attacks, many before ISIL even claimed responsibility.[198] This included the Imam and head of Islam's highest place of theological learning, the University of Al-Azhar in Egypt, the Supreme council of Religious Scholars in Saudi Arabia,[199] the Iranian president Hassan Rouhani,[200] and the Ahmadiyya caliph Mirza Masroor Ahmad.[201]
Syrian president Bashar al-Assad condemned the terror attacks in Paris, but added that France's support for Syrian rebel groups had contributed to the spread of terrorism.[202] France had been a particularly vocal opponent of Assad during the Syrian civil war.[203]
The Syrian branch of Al-Qaeda, al-Nusra Front, praised the attacks, saying that even though they view ISIL as "dogs of hellfire", they applaud when "infidels" get attacked by ISIL. The major mainstream Islamist rebels against the Syrian regime, Ahrar ash-Sham and Jaysh al-Islam, both condemned the attacks.[204]
The leader of Hezbollah, Sayyid Hassan Nasrallah, strongly condemned the attacks and expressed his solidarity with the French people.[205] Statements of condemnation were also issued by militant groups such as Hamas and Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine.[206]

See also

Notes

Co-ordinates of attacks


  • Coordinates: 48.924°N 2.362°E

    1. Coordinates: 48.8539°N 2.3819°E

    References




  • Coordinates: 48.8719°N 2.3679°E

  • Coordinates: 48.8687°N 2.3682°E

  • Coordinates: 48.8630°N 2.3707°E

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  • Frankrijk valt Raqqa opnieuw aan NOS (Dutch)


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    ____________




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