Veidruste Otsing

Saturday, April 2, 2016

Anyone who does not like Jews should be removed / The Versions of Talmuts

Kellelt Eestlastel on õppida:
" South Koreans reportedly hope to emulate Jews' high academic standards by studying Jewish literature. Almost every household has a translated copy of the Talmud, which parents read to their children, and the book is part of the primary-school curriculum.[57][58] "


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerusalem_Talmud

The Jerusalem Talmud
(Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשָׁלְמִי, Talmud Yerushalmi, often Yerushalmi for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael (Talmud of the Land of Israel), is a collection of Rabbinic notes on the 2nd-century Jewish oral tradition known as the Mishnah. These latter names are considered more accurate by some because, while the work was certainly composed in "the West" (i.e. the Holy Land), it originates from the Galilee area rather than from Jerusalem.[1] The Jerusalem Talmud was compiled in the Land of Israel during the 4th-5th centuries CE, then divided between the Byzantine provinces of Palaestina Prima and Palaestina Secunda. The Jerusalem Talmud predates its counterpart, the Babylonian Talmud (also known as the Talmud Bavli), by about 200 years and is written in both Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic.
The word Talmud itself is often defined as "instruction".[2] The Jerusalem Talmud includes the core component, the Mishna, finalized by Rabbi Judah the Prince (c. 200 CE), along with the written discussions of generations of rabbis in the Land of Israel (primarily in the academies of Tiberias and Caesarea) which was compiled c. 350-400 CE into a series of books that became the Gemara (גמרא; from gamar: Hebrew "[to] complete"; Aramaic "[to] study"). The Gemara, when combined with the Mishnah, constitutes the Talmud.
There are two recensions of the Gemara, one compiled by the scholars of the Land of Israel and the other by those of Babylonia (primarily in the academies of Sura and Pumbedita, completed c. 500 CE). The Babylonian Talmud is often seen as more authoritative and is studied much more than the Jerusalem Talmud. In general, the terms "Gemara" or "Talmud," without further qualification, refer to the Babylonian recension.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talmud#Babylonian_Talmud
The Talmud (/ˈtɑːlmʊd, -məd, ˈtæl-/; Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is a central text of Rabbinic Judaism. It is also traditionally referred to as Shas (ש״ס), a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, the "six orders", a reference to the six orders of the Mishnah. The term "Talmud" normally refers to the collection of writings named specifically the Babylonian Talmud (Talmud Bavli), although there is also an earlier collection known as the Jerusalem Talmud, or Palestinian Talmud (Talmud Yerushalmi). When referring to post-biblical periods, namely those of the creation of the Talmud, the Talmudic academies and the Babylonian exilarchate, Jewish sources use the term "Babylonia" from a strictly Jewish point of view,[1] still using this name after it had become obsolete in geopolitical terms.
The Talmud has two components: the Mishnah (Hebrew: משנה, c. 200 CE), a written compendium of Rabbinic Judaism's Oral Torah (Talmud translates literally as "instruction" in Hebrew); and the Gemara (c. 500 CE), an elucidation of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Hebrew Bible. The term "Talmud" may refer to either the Gemara alone, or the Mishnah and Gemara together.
The entire Talmud consists of 63 tractates, and in standard print is over 6,200 pages long. It is written in Tannaitic Hebrew and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and contains the teachings and opinions of thousands of rabbis (dating from before the Common Era through the fifth century CE) on a variety of subjects, including Halakha (law), Jewish ethics, philosophy, customs, history, lore and many other topics. The Talmud is the basis for all codes of Jewish law, and is widely quoted in rabbinic literature.


Talmud Yerushalmi

  • Talmud of the Land of Israel: A Preliminary Translation and Explanation Jacob Neusner, Tzvee Zahavy, others. University of Chicago Press. This translation uses a form-analytical presentation that makes the logical units of discourse easier to identify and follow. This work has received many positive reviews. However, some consider Neusner's translation methodology idiosyncratic. One volume was negatively reviewed by Saul Lieberman of the Jewish Theological Seminary.
  • Schottenstein Edition of the Yerushalmi Talmud Mesorah/Artscroll. This translation is the counterpart to Mesorah/Artscroll's Schottenstein Edition of the Talmud (i.e. Babylonian Talmud).
  • The Jerusalem Talmud, Edition, Translation and Commentary, ed. Guggenheimer, Heinrich W., Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany
  • German Edition, Übersetzung des Talmud Yerushalmi, published by Martin Hengel, Peter Schäfer, Hans-Jürgen Becker, Frowald Gil Hüttenmeister, Mohr&Siebeck, Tübingen, Germany
  • Modern Elucidated Talmud Yerushalmi, ed. Joshua Buch. Uses the Leiden manuscript as its based text corrected according to manuscripts and Geniza Fragments. Draws upon Traditional and Modern Scholarship - www.talmudyerushalmi.org/talmud-yerushalmi-mevoar/



Talmud Bavli

There are six contemporary translations of the Talmud into English:
  • The Noé Edition of the Koren Talmud Bavli, Adin Steinsaltz, Koren Publishers Jerusalem. This work was launched in 2012. Opened from the Hebrew side, this edition features the traditional Vilna page with vowels and punctuation in the original Aramaic text. The Rashi commentary appears in Rashi script with vowels and punctuation. Opened from the English side, the edition features bi-lingual text with side-by-side English/Aramaic translation. The margins include color maps, illustrations and notes based on Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz’s Hebrew language translation and commentary of the Talmud. Rabbi Dr. Tzvi Hersh Weinreb serves as the Editor-in-Chief. As of August 2015, 19 volumes have been published. The entire set will be 42 volumes.

  • The Talmud: The Steinsaltz Edition Adin Steinsaltz, Random House. This work is an English edition of Rabbi Steinsaltz' complete Hebrew language translation of and commentary on the entire Talmud. Incomplete—24 volumes and a reference guide.
  • Schottenstein Edition of the Talmud, Mesorah Publications (73 volumes). In this translation, each English page faces the Aramaic/Hebrew page. The English pages are elucidated and heavily annotated; each Aramaic/Hebrew page of Talmud typically requires three English pages of translation. Complete.
  • The Soncino Talmud, Isidore Epstein, Soncino Press (26 volumes; also formerly an 18 volume edition was published). Notes on each page provide additional background material. This translation is published both on its own and in a parallel text edition, in which each English page faces the Aramaic/Hebrew page. It is available also on CD-ROM. Complete.
  • The Talmud of Babylonia. An American Translation, Jacob Neusner, Tzvee Zahavy, others. Atlanta: 1984-1995: Scholars Press for Brown Judaic Studies. Complete.
  • The Babylonian Talmud, translated by Michael L. Rodkinson. (1903, contains all of the tractates in the Orders of Mo'ed/Festivals and Nezikin/Damages, plus some additional material related to these Orders.) This is inaccurate[citation needed] and was wholly superseded by the Soncino translation: it is sometimes linked to from the internet because, for copyright reasons, it was until recently the only translation freely available on the Web (see below, under Full text resources).
There is one translation of the Talmud into Arabic, published in 2012 in Jordan by the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. The translation was carried out by a group of 90 Muslim and Christian scholars.[26] The introduction was characterized by Dr. Raquel Ukeles, Curator of the Israel National Library's Arabic collection, as "racist", but she considers the translation itself as "not bad"






// arvesse võtta nende inimese tausta, austust ja täpsust ning suunda.

Geonim

The earliest Talmud commentaries were written by the Geonim (c. 800 - 1000, CE) in Babylonia. Although some direct commentaries on particular treatises are extant, our main knowledge of Gaonic era Talmud scholarship comes from statements embedded in Geonic responsa that shed light on Talmudic passages: these are arranged in the order of the Talmud in Levin's Otzar ha-Geonim. Also important are practical abridgments of Jewish law such as Yehudai Gaon's Halachot Pesukot, Achai Gaon's Sheeltot and Simeon Kayyara's Halachot Gedolot. After the death of Hai Gaon, however, the center of Talmud scholarship shifts to Europe and North Africa.

Halakhic and Aggadic extractions

One area of Talmudic scholarship developed out of the need to ascertain the Halakha. Early commentators such as Rabbi Isaac Alfasi (North Africa, 1013–1103) attempted to extract and determine the binding legal opinions from the vast corpus of the Talmud. Alfasi's work was highly influential, attracted several commentaries in its own right and later served as a basis for the creation of halakhic codes. Another influential medieval Halakhic work following the order of the Babylonian Talmud, and to some extent modelled on Alfasi, was "the Mordechai", a compilation by Mordechai ben Hillel (c. 1250 – 1298). A third such work was that of Rabbi Asher ben Yechiel (d. 1327). All these works and their commentaries are printed in the Vilna and many subsequent editions of the Talmud.
A 15th-century Spanish rabbi, Jacob ibn Habib (d. 1516), composed the Ein Yaakov. Ein Yaakov (or En Ya'aqob) extracts nearly all the Aggadic material from the Talmud. It was intended to familiarize the public with the ethical parts of the Talmud and to dispute many of the accusations surrounding its contents.


// Kõikide nende inimeste tausta uurida, austust võrrelda eri kõrgväärtustega juudi versioonide hulgas, ja siis Eesti tarkusega võrreldes kõiki neid kommentaare algse esimese pilguga selekteerida


Commentaries, De-Crypting of Talmut

The Talmud is often cryptic and difficult to understand. Its language contains many Greek and Persian words that became obscure over time. A major area of Talmudic scholarship developed to explain these passages and words. Some early commentators such as Rabbenu Gershom of Mainz (10th century) and Rabbenu Ḥananel (early 11th century) produced running commentaries to various tractates. These commentaries could be read with the text of the Talmud and would help explain the meaning of the text. Another important work is the Sefer ha-Mafteaḥ (Book of the Key) by Nissim Gaon, which contains a preface explaining the different forms of Talmudic argumentation and then explains abbreviated passages in the Talmud by cross-referring to parallel passages where the same thought is expressed in full. Commentaries (ḥiddushim) by Joseph ibn Migash on two tractates, Bava Batra and Shevuot, based on Ḥananel and Alfasi, also survive, as does a compilation by Zechariah Aghmati called Sefer ha-Ner.[29] Using a different style, Rabbi Nathan b. Jechiel created a lexicon called the Arukh in the 11th century to help translate difficult words.




By far the best known commentary on the Babylonian Talmud is that of Rashi (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac, 1040–1105). The commentary is comprehensive, covering almost the entire Talmud. Written as a running commentary, it provides a full explanation of the words, and explains the logical structure of each Talmudic passage. It is considered indispensable to students of the Talmud.
Medieval Ashkenazic Jewry produced another major commentary known as Tosafot ("additions" or "supplements"). The Tosafot are collected commentaries by various medieval Ashkenazic Rabbis on the Talmud (known as Tosafists or Ba'alei Tosafot). One of the main goals of the Tosafot is to explain and interpret contradictory statements in the Talmud. Unlike Rashi, the Tosafot is not a running commentary, but rather comments on selected matters. Often the explanations of Tosafot differ from those of Rashi.
Among the founders of the Tosafist school were Rabbi Jacob ben Meir (known as Rabbeinu Tam), who was a grandson of Rashi, and, Rabbenu Tam's nephew, Rabbi Isaac ben Samuel. The Tosafot commentaries were collected in different editions in the various schools. The benchmark collection of Tosafot for Northern France was that of R. Eliezer of Touques. The standard collection for Spain was that of Rabbenu Asher ("Tosefot Harosh"). The Tosafot that are printed in the standard Vilna edition of the Talmud are an edited version compiled from the various medieval collections, predominantly that of Touques.[30]



Over time, the approach of the Tosafists spread to other Jewish communities, particularly those in Spain. This led to the composition of many other commentaries in similar styles. Among these are the commentaries of Nachmanides (Ramban), Solomon ben Adret (Rashba), Yom Tov of Seville (Ritva) and Nissim of Gerona (Ran). A comprehensive anthology consisting of extracts from all these is the Shittah Mekubbetzet of Bezalel Ashkenazi.
Other commentaries produced in Spain and Provence were not influenced by the Tosafist style. Two of the most significant of these are the Yad Ramah by Rabbi Meir Abulafia and Bet Habechirah by Rabbi Menahem haMeiri, commonly referred to as "Meiri". While the Bet Habechirah is extant for all of Talmud, we only have the Yad Ramah for Tractates Sanhedrin, Baba Batra and Gittin. Like the commentaries of Ramban and the others, these are generally printed as independent works, though some Talmud editions include the Shittah Mekubbetzet in an abbreviated form.
In later centuries, focus partially shifted from direct Talmudic interpretation to the analysis of previously written Talmudic commentaries. These later commentaries include "Maharshal" (Solomon Luria), "Maharam" (Meir Lublin) and "Maharsha" (Samuel Edels), and are generally printed at the back of each tractate.
Another very useful study aid, found in almost all editions of the Talmud, consists of the marginal notes Torah Or, Ein Mishpat Ner Mitzvah and Masoret ha-Shas by the Italian rabbi Joshua Boaz, which give references respectively to the cited Biblical passages, to the relevant halachic codes and to related Talmudic passages.

Most editions of the Talmud include brief marginal notes by Akiva Eger under the name Gilyonot ha-Shas, and textual notes by Joel Sirkes and the Vilna Gaon (see Textual emendations below), on the page together with the text.


// kes selle meetoti taga olid ja mida kasuliku sellega uut esile toodi

Pilpul

During the 15th and 16th centuries, a new intensive form of Talmud study arose. Complicated logical arguments were used to explain minor points of contradiction within the Talmud. The term pilpul was applied to this type of study. Usage of pilpul in this sense (that of "sharp analysis") harks back to the Talmudic era and refers to the intellectual sharpness this method demanded.
Pilpul practitioners posited that the Talmud could contain no redundancy or contradiction whatsoever. New categories and distinctions (hillukim) were therefore created, resolving seeming contradictions within the Talmud by novel logical means.

In the Ashkenazi world the founders of pilpul are generally considered to be Jacob Pollak (1460–1541) and Shalom Shachna. This kind of study reached its height in the 16th and 17th centuries when expertise in pilpulistic analysis was considered an art form and became a goal in and of itself within the yeshivot of Poland and Lithuania. But the popular new method of Talmud study was not without critics; already in the 15th century, the ethical tract Orhot Zaddikim ("Paths of the Righteous" in Hebrew) criticized pilpul for an overemphasis on intellectual acuity. Many 16th- and 17th-century rabbis were also critical of pilpul. Among them may be noted Judah Loew ben Bezalel (the Maharal of Prague), Isaiah Horowitz, and Yair Bacharach.
By the 18th century, pilpul study waned. Other styles of learning such as that of the school of Elijah b. Solomon, the Vilna Gaon, became popular. The term "pilpul" was increasingly applied derogatorily to novellae deemed casuistic and hairsplitting. Authors referred to their own commentaries as "al derekh ha-peshat" (by the simple method) to contrast them with pilpul.[31]


// Juba ilma mainimata huvitav, panna rooma-greeka aju järgi siis asjad ritta ja uurida:

Sephardic approaches

Among Sephardi and Italian Jews from the 15th century on, some authorities sought to apply the methods of Aristotelian logic, as reformulated by Averroes.[32] This method was first recorded, though without explicit reference to Aristotle, by Isaac Campanton (d. Spain, 1463) in his Darkhei ha-Talmud ("The Ways of the Talmud"),[33] and is also found in the works of Moses Chaim Luzzatto.[34]
According to the present-day Sephardi scholar José Faur, traditional Sephardic Talmud study could take place on any of three levels.[35]
  • The most basic level consists of literary analysis of the text without the help of commentaries, designed to bring out the tzurata di-shema'ta, i.e. the logical and narrative structure of the passage.[36]
  • The intermediate level, 'iyyun (concentration), consists of study with the help of commentaries such as Rashi and the Tosafot, similar to that practised among the Ashkenazim.[37] Historically Sephardim studied the Tosefot ha-Rosh and the commentaries of Nahmanides in preference to the printed Tosafot.[38] A method based on the study of Tosafot, and of Ashkenazi authorities such as Maharsha (Samuel Edels) and Maharshal (Solomon Luria), was introduced in late seventeenth century Tunisia by Rabbis Abraham Hakohen (d. 1715) and Tsemaḥ Tsarfati (d. 1717) and perpetuated by Rabbi Isaac Lumbroso[39] and is sometimes referred to as 'Iyyun Tunisa'i.[40]
  • The highest level, halachah (Jewish law), consists of collating the opinions set out in the Talmud with those of the halachic codes such as the Mishneh Torah and the Shulchan Aruch, so as to study the Talmud as a source of law. (A project called Halacha Brura,[41] founded by Abraham Isaac Kook, presents the Talmud and a summary of the halachic codes side by side in book form so as to enable this kind of collation.)
Today most Sephardic yeshivot follow Lithuanian approaches such as the Brisker method: the traditional Sephardic methods are perpetuated informally by some individuals. 'Iyyun Tunisa'i is taught at the Kisse Rahamim yeshivah in Bnei Brak.




Brisker method

In the late 19th century another trend in Talmud study arose. Rabbi Hayyim Soloveitchik (1853–1918) of Brisk (Brest-Litovsk) developed and refined this style of study. Brisker method involves a reductionistic analysis of rabbinic arguments within the Talmud or among the Rishonim, explaining the differing opinions by placing them within a categorical structure. The Brisker method is highly analytical and is often criticized as being a modern-day version of pilpul. Nevertheless, the influence of the Brisker method is great. Most modern day Yeshivot study the Talmud using the Brisker method in some form. One feature of this method is the use of Maimonides' Mishneh Torah as a guide to Talmudic interpretation, as distinct from its use as a source of practical halakha.
Rival methods were those of the Mir and Telz yeshivas.[42]

 "For a humorous description of the different methods, see Gavriel Bechhofer's An Analysis of Darchei HaLimud (Methodologies of Talmud Study) Centering on a Cup of Tea. "






Critical method

As a result of Jewish emancipation, Judaism underwent enormous upheaval and transformation during the 19th century. Modern methods of textual and historical analysis were applied to the Talmud.

//muidugi koige enam unustatakse, et kollid, tulnuka,d roma globaalne voim ja koik muud, kes on huvitatuderinevat pidi keeltja sonu kooskolas muutes, tetitada olukorda, kus inimeste hjinged saab lopuks kunagi jumala kyljest lahti yhedada, elementaarne, voib votta paartuhat aastat järjepidevat tööd koikide kutluuride, kylajuttudega yle maakera ja raamatute ja saadete tgemisega samal ajal keelt analyysides ja suhteid iga inimese omi yksiti ja eri gruppides. see tavalineelementaarne tegevus neil kes meiega tegelvad, ja veel see koigest siin dimensioonis, sama tehakse ka eri versioonide vahel kõikides väga suurtes hulkades eri liikidgea versioonide vahel , samal ajal ajas ette ja taha liikudes ja erinevaid tulemusi välja arvutades mida kaustusele proovitakse votta väga suurima hulga tötajate hulgaga kui maakera inimesed kokku

ja kuna nad eskides koi koorraga ära kaovad, siis suurele osale inimestele ei jäägi nende olemasolu alles rohema teamisena kui jutuna, parimal juhul, kes aga reisinud on eri ilmade,s teab ja saab aru ka kuidas igat seemnerakku ja naist kasutatud on eri koopiate tegemiseks kes mones imas tehtud ainult selleks, et nad minigt uut kultuuri leiutist poorviksid välja mõelda.





Textual emendations
Rabbinic tradition holds that the people cited in both Talmuds did not have a hand in its writings; rather, their teachings were edited into a rough form around 450 CE (Talmud Yerushalmi) and 550 CE (Talmud Bavli.) The text of the Bavli especially was not firmly fixed at that time. The Gaonic responsa literature addresses this issue. Teshuvot Geonim Kadmonim, section 78, deals with mistaken biblical readings in the Talmud. This Gaonic responsum states:
"...But you must examine carefully in every case when you feel uncertainty [as to the credibility of the text] - what is its source? Whether a scribal error? Or the superficiality of a second rate student who was not well versed?....after the manner of many mistakes found among those superficial second-rate students, and certainly among those rural memorizers who were not familiar with the biblical text. And since they erred in the first place..
-----
In the 19th century Raphael Nathan Nota Rabinovicz published a multi-volume work entitled Dikdukei Soferim, showing textual variants from the Munich and other early manuscripts of the Talmud, and further variants are recorded in the Complete Israeli Talmud and Gemara Shelemah editions (see Printing, above).
Today many more manuscripts have become available, in particular from the Cairo Geniza. The Academy of the Hebrew Language has prepared a text on CD-ROM for lexicographical purposes, containing the text of each tractate according to the manuscript it considers most reliable,[46] and images of some of the older manuscripts may be found on the website of the Jewish National and University Library.[47] The JNUL, the Lieberman Institute (associated with the Jewish Theological Seminary of America), the Institute for the Complete Israeli Talmud (part of Yad Harav Herzog) and the Friedberg Jewish Manuscript Society all maintain searchable websites on which the viewer can request variant manuscript readings of a given passage.[48]

// muidugi alati kui näed sona "reform" siis motle igaks juhuks ka kohe Lutheri ja Protestantidele, ses kui nad valet sorti reformi teevad, siis nad samast puust ja põhimotetega
During the early 19th century, leaders of the newly evolving Reform movement, such as Abraham Geiger and Samuel Holdheim, subjected the Talmud to severe scrutiny as part of an effort to break with traditional rabbinic Judaism. They insisted that the Talmud was entirely a work of evolution and development. This view was rejected as both academically incorrect, and religiously incorrect, by those who would become known as the Orthodox movement. Some Orthodox leaders such as Moses Sofer (the Chatam Sofer) became exquisitely sensitive to any change and rejected modern critical methods of Talmud study.


On the other hand, many of the 19th century's strongest critics of Reform, including strictly orthodox Rabbis such as Zvi Hirsch Chajes, utilized this new scientific method. The Orthodox Rabbinical seminary of Azriel Hildesheimer was founded on the idea of creating a "harmony between Judaism and science". Another Orthodox pioneer of scientific Talmud study was David Zvi Hoffman.
The Iraqi rabbi Yaakov Chaim Sofer notes that the text of the Gemara has had changes and additions, and contains statements not of the same origin as the original. See his Yehi Yosef (Jerusalem, 1991) p. 132 "This passage does not bear the signature of the editor of the Talmud!"
Orthodox scholar Daniel Sperber writes in "Legitimacy, of Necessity, of Scientific Disciplines" that many Orthodox sources have engaged in the historical (also called "scientific") study of the Talmud. As such, the divide today between Orthodoxy and Reform is not about whether the Talmud may be subjected to historical study, but rather about the theological and halakhic implications of such study.


// vähem olulisem, aga piisavalt oluline, et mainida:

Contemporary scholarship

Some trends within contemporary Talmud scholarship are listed below.
  • Orthodox Judaism maintains that the oral Torah was revealed, in some form, together with the written Torah. As such, some adherents, most notably Samson Raphael Hirsch and his followers, resisted any effort to apply historical methods that imputed specific motives to the authors of the Talmud. Other major figures in Orthodoxy, however, took issue with Hirsch on this matter, most prominently David Tzvi Hoffmann.[49]
  • Some scholars hold that there has been extensive editorial reshaping of the stories and statements within the Talmud. Lacking outside confirming texts, they hold that we cannot confirm the origin or date of most statements and laws, and that we can say little for certain about their authorship. In this view, the questions above are impossible to answer. See, for example, the works of Louis Jacobs and Shaye J.D. Cohen.
  • Some scholars hold that the Talmud has been extensively shaped by later editorial redaction, but that it contains sources we can identify and describe with some level of reliability. In this view, sources can be identified by tracing the history and analyzing the geographical regions of origin. See, for example, the works of Lee I. Levine and David Kraemer.
  • Some scholars hold that many or most the statements and events described in the Talmud usually occurred more or less as described, and that they can be used as serious sources of historical study. In this view, historians do their best to tease out later editorial additions (itself a very difficult task) and skeptically view accounts of miracles, leaving behind a reliable historical text. See, for example, the works of Saul Lieberman, David Weiss Halivni, and Avraham Goldberg.
  • Modern academic study attempts to separate the different "strata" within the text, to try to interpret each level on its own, and to identify the correlations between parallel versions of the same tradition. In recent years, the works of R. David Weiss Halivni and Dr. Shamma Friedman have suggested a paradigm shift in the understanding of the Talmud (Encyclopaedia Judaica 2nd ed. entry "Talmud, Babylonian"). The traditional understanding was to view the Talmud as a unified homogeneous work. While other scholars had also treated the Talmud as a multi-layered work, Dr. Halivni's innovation (primarily in the second volume of his Mekorot u-Mesorot) was to differentiate between the Amoraic statements, which are generally brief Halachic decisions or inquiries, and the writings of the later "Stammaitic" (or Saboraic) authors, which are characterised by a much longer analysis that often consists of lengthy dialectic discussion. It has been noted that the Jerusalem Talmud is in fact very similar to the Babylonian Talmud minus Stammaitic activity (Encyclopaedia Judaica (2nd ed.), entry "Jerusalem Talmud"). Shamma Y. Friedman's Talmud Aruch on the sixth chapter of Bava Metzia (1996) is the first example of a complete analysis of a Talmudic text using this method. S. Wald has followed with works on Pesachim ch. 3 (2000) and Shabbat ch. 7 (2006). Further commentaries in this sense are being published by Dr Friedman's "Society for the Interpretation of the Talmud".[50]
  • Some scholars are indeed using outside sources to help give historical and contextual understanding of certain areas of the Babylonian Talmud. See for example the works of the Prof Yaakov Elman[51] and of his student Dr. Shai Secunda[52]



// Oluline küsimus mida ära lahendada

Role in Judaism

The Talmud represents the written record of an oral tradition. It became the basis for many rabbinic legal codes and customs, most importantly for the Mishneh Torah and for the Shulchan Aruch. Orthodox and, to a lesser extent, Conservative Judaism accepts the Talmud as authoritative, while Samaritan, Karaite, Reconstructionist, and Reform Judaism do not. This section briefly outlines past and current movements and their view of the Talmud's role.



// Näiteks Sadducees  ja Karaism ei aktsepteerinud Oraalset Toorat,
ka seda tuleb arvestada, ja seega vaadata mis tulemusi Torah annab kui oraalne välja jätta seadusena.

// ja siis siin märge node kommunistide maiguga reformerite osas, ja et mis nende piint on ennast juudiks kutsuda:

Reform Judaism

The rise of Reform Judaism during the 19th century saw more questioning of the authority of the Talmud. Reform Jews saw the Talmud as a product of late antiquity, having relevance merely as a historical document. For example, the "Declaration of Principles" issued by the Association of Friends of Reform Frankfurt in August 1843 states among other things that:
The collection of controversies, dissertations, and prescriptions commonly designated by the name Talmud possesses for us no authority, from either the dogmatic or the practical standpoint.
Some took a critical-historical view of the written Torah as well, while others appeared to adopt a neo-Karaite "back to the Bible" approach, though often with greater emphasis on the prophetic than on the legal books.
Reform Judaism does not emphasize the study of Talmud to the same degree in their Hebrew schools, but they do teach it in their rabbinical seminaries; the world view of liberal Judaism rejects the idea of binding Jewish law, and uses the Talmud as a source of inspiration and moral instruction. Ownership and reading of the Talmud is not widespread among Reform and Reconstructionist Jews, who usually place more emphasis on the study of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh.


Humanistic Judaism

Within Humanistic Judaism, Talmud is studied as a historical text, in order to discover how it can demonstrate practical relevance to living today.[53]

// see juba kõlab loogiliselt. Hästi.


Orthodox Judaism
continues to stress the importance of Talmud study as a central component of Yeshiva curriculum, in particular for those training to become Rabbis. This is so even though Halakha is generally studied from the medieval codes and not directly from the Talmud. Talmudic study amongst the laity is widespread in Orthodox Judaism, with daily or weekly Talmud study particularly common in Haredi Judaism and with Talmud study a central part of the curriculum in Orthodox Yeshivas and day schools. The regular study of Talmud among laymen has been popularized by the Daf Yomi, a daily course of Talmud study initiated by Rabbi Meir Shapiro in 1923; its 13th cycle of study began on August, 2012. The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute has popularized the "MyShiur - Explorations in Talmud" to show how the Talmud is relevant to a wide range of people.[54]



Conservative Judaism similarly emphasizes the study of Talmud within its religious and rabbinic education. Generally, however, Conservative Jews study the Talmud as a historical source-text for Halakha. The Conservative approach to legal decision-making emphasizes placing classic texts and prior decisions in historical and cultural context, and examining the historical development of Halakha. This approach has resulted in greater practical flexibility than that of the Orthodox. Talmud study forms part of the curriculum of Conservative parochial education at many Conservative day-schools, and an increase in Conservative day-school enrollments has resulted in an increase in Talmud study as part of Conservative Jewish education among a minority of Conservative Jews. See also: The Conservative Jewish view of the Halakha.


--------
Talmud contains biblical exegesis and commentary on Tanakh that will often clarify elliptical and esoteric passages. The Talmud contains possible references to Jesus Christ and his disciples, while the Christian canon makes mention of Talmudic figures and contains teachings that can be paralleled within the Talmud and Midrash. The Talmud provides cultural and historical context to the Gospel and the writings of the Apostles.[56]

---------

The Tanakh (/tɑːˈnɑːx/;[1] Hebrew: תַּנַ"ךְ‎, pronounced [taˈnaχ] or [təˈnax]; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach) or Mikra or Hebrew Bible is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament. These texts are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew, with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few others). The traditional Hebrew text is known as the Masoretic Text.
Tanakh is an acronym of the first Hebrew letter of each of the Masoretic Text's three traditional subdivisions: Torah ("Teaching", also known as the Five Books of Moses), Nevi'im ("Prophets") and Ketuvim ("Writings")—hence TaNaKh. The name "Mikra" (מקרא), meaning "that which is read", is another Hebrew word for the Tanakh. The books of the Tanakh were passed on by each generation, and according to rabbinic tradition were accompanied by an oral tradition, called the Oral Torah.





Webistes usad / Lehed mida kasutada:
Soncino translation: http://dtorah.com/otzar/shas_soncino.php?ms=Shabbath&df=28b
Gemara translation http://www.themercava.com/app/
Good eng. tran: http://www.sefaria.org/Berakhot.2a?lang=he-en&layout=heLeft&sidebarLang=all
 Hebrew/Aramaic: http://www.mechon-mamre.org/b/l/l0.htm
 Hebrew/Aramaic: http://www.e-daf.com/
http://halakhah.com/indexrst.html PDFs

https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Talmud/talmudtoc.html
http://www.nommeraadio.ee/meedia/pdf/RRS/Babylonian%20Talmud.pdf (Volumes 1 to 10)





// Esimene samm on sorteerida välja, kõige tõenäosemalt, kõige maisem, sügavaim ja austatuim tarkade poolt, millele lisaks võta kõige teistsugusem millel tundub ka olema suur väärtus lisamateriali ja selgituse osas, ja siis node kahega paralleelselt, on lootus hakata natukene asju vaatama ja võrdlema.
Kui nad liiga sarnased on siis pole ka kasu nii suur.

Kui inimesed kes kirjutasid või  kokku panid selle asja, on lipsudega Ülikooli professoridja akadeemikud, seotud kahtlaste vaadete või organisatsioonidega  siis ilmselgelt nende tööd tuleks hoopis muu nurga alt vaadata ja eriti oluliselt uurida neid osi mida nad oma töödes teistmoodi on kirja pannud, miks need viamudjust neid osi muutsid SELLISELT tuleb küsida?
Kuidas SEE keele kasutus ajus ja ajas asju ning emotsioone teistmoodi liigutab? KAs see on lõplik vale suund, kohalik keele versioon, või vahe vale lüli, et järgmine osa siia otsa saaks kergemini veelgi metsast eemale suunata? Kes on need kes on seotud, kas vanad tõsised Matriarhaatlikud habemikud või uue aja professorid viisnurga ja lipsuga?

Tuleb meeles pidada mis moodi Juudi hinge lahti muukimiseks USAs kommunistid palju juudi ülikoole ja raamatukogusi avasid, et siis uue sajandi lapsi, 50 aastat hiljem sinna loksu tõmmata, kes pole vaevunud vanematega uurima phemendatud ühiskonnas kes milleks mis asutuse tegi. NIng siis juba juute siseselt saab ka muuta lisaks uuringule ja neid omakorda kasutada juutluse lahtimuukimiseks, sega abieludeks, projektideks ja alandamiseks neid halbade ajsadega sidudes valikuliselt kui vaja, need aga tavapärased lihtsamad plaanid, koos Heebria keele muutmise plaanidega, et algne side ja tunnetus Jumalaga kaoks, selle asemel, et süveneks, nagu peaks.


Kasutan jällegi endiselt avaliku informatsiooni, mille leidmisega 4-5 klassi laps peaks ka hakkama saama, seega ei saa olla ühtegi vabandust inimesel, kellel 12 klassi elus läbi tehtud ja endiselt nii valesti käitub, et ei suuda kriitiliselt ette mõelda ja aru saada.

Eriti suur süü kõikidel ,eks uba usuvad või kokku puutunud vaimumaailmaga,sest nemad peaksid aru saama pettuste ja valede sügavusest. Ning ku inad esimese selgelt pahade viamudega setud kommunide kaudu ja kommunistide kaudu promotud hüüdlauseid jagavad, siis olenemata nende avalikust profiiilist, on nede tegelik arengu ja tarkuse tase nii madal, olulise osas, et nad kaovad kui niidetud kuiv muru, ilma, et nende olulisust keegi märkaks ja mäletaks. Sest nad ise teadlikult tegid valiku hävinevate pahada Naiste vastaste jõudude kasuks tööle hakata, ...ja eriti alatud veel ise näitavad nagu nad oleks Naise poolel... kuidas sab olla keegi naise poolel, kui tal piibli armastusest on puudu? Ainult see saab armastada maailma, Naist (kes esindab ka Tarkust) ja Loojat õigesti, kes toetab Usuteed.
Siin ei ole ühtegi muud võimalust, nii on.


Bomberg Talmud 1523

The first complete edition of the Babylonian Talmud was printed in Venice by Daniel Bomberg 1520–23. In addition to the Mishnah and Gemara, Bomberg's edition contained the commentaries of Rashi and Tosafot. Almost all printings since Bomberg have followed the same pagination. Bomberg's edition was considered relatively free of censorship

Benveniste Talmud 1645

Following Ambrosius Frobenius's publication of most of the Talmud in installments in Basel, Immanuel Benveniste published the whole Talmud in installments in Amsterdam 1644–1648,[17] Though according to Raphael Rabbinovicz the Benveniste Talmud may have been based on the Lublin Talmud and included many of the censors' errors. 

Vilna Talmud, 1835

The edition of the Talmud published by the Szapira brothers in Slavuta in 1795 is particularly prized by many rebbes of Hasidic Judaism. In 1835, after an acrimonious dispute with the Szapira family, a new edition of the Talmud was printed by Menachem Romm of Vilna. Known as the Vilna Edition Shas, this edition (and later ones printed by his widow and sons, the Romm publishing house) has been used in the production of more recent editions of Talmud Bavli.
A page number in the Talmud refers to a double-sided page, known as a daf; each daf has two amudim labeled א and ב, sides A and B (Recto and Verso). The referencing by daf is relatively recent and dates from the early Talmud printings of the 17th century. Earlier rabbinic literature generally only refers to the tractate or chapters within a tractate. Nowadays, reference is made in format [Tractate daf a/b] (e.g. Berachot 23b). In the Vilna edition of the Talmud there are 5,894 folio pages

Goldschmidt Talmud 1897–1909, and German translation

Lazarus Goldschmidt published an edition from the "uncensored text" of the Babylonian Talmud with a German translation in 9 vols. (commenced Leipzig, 1897–1909, edition completed, following emigration to England in 1933, by 1936)

The text of the Vilna editions is considered by scholars not to be uniformly reliable, and there have been a number of attempts to collate textual variants.
  1. In the early 20th century Nathan Rabinowitz published a series of volumes called Dikduke Soferim showing textual variants from early manuscripts and printings.
  2. In 1960 work started on a new edition under the name of Gemara Shelemah (complete Gemara) under the editorship of Menachem Mendel Kasher: only the volume on the first part of tractate Pesachim appeared before the project was interrupted by his death. This edition contained a comprehensive set of textual variants and a few selected commentaries.
  3. Some thirteen volumes have been published by the Institute for the Complete Israeli Talmud (a division of Yad Harav Herzog), on lines similar to Rabinowitz, containing the text and a comprehensive set of textual variants (from manuscripts, early prints and citations in secondary literature) but no commentaries.[20]
There have been critical editions of particular tractates (e.g. Henry Malter's edition of Ta'anit), but there is no modern critical edition of the whole Talmud. Modern editions such as those of the Oz ve-Hadar Institute correct misprints and restore passages that in earlier editions were modified or excised by censorship but do not attempt a comprehensive account of textual variants. One edition, by Rabbi Yosef Amar,[21] represents the Yemenite tradition, and takes the form of a photostatic reproduction of a Vilna-based print to which Yemenite vocalization and textual variants have been added by hand, together with printed introductory material. Collations of the Yemenite manuscripts of some tractates have been published by Columbia University


  • The Schottenstein Talmud, published by ArtScroll: the first volume was published in 1990, and the series was completed in 2004. Each page is printed in the traditional Vilna format, and accompanied by an expanded paraphrase in English, in which the translation of the text is shown in bold and explanations are interspersed in normal type.
  • The Metivta edition, published by the Oz ve-Hadar Institute. This contains the full text in the same format as the Vilna-based editions, with a full explanation in modern Hebrew on facing pages as well as an improved version of the traditional commentaries.[25]
  • A previous project of the same kind, called Talmud El Am, "Talmud to the people", was published in Israel in the 1960s-80s. The Talmud El Am contains Hebrew text, English translation and commentary by Rabbi Dr A. Ehrman, with short 'realia', marginal notes, often illustrated, written by experts in the field for the whole of Tractate Berakhot, 2 chapters of Bava Mezia and the halachic section of Qiddushin, chapter 1.
_____________________________________

Sacret textide eesosas, Robbindsoni tõlke osas

" Talmud makes interesting reading because it is infused with vigorous intellectual debate, humor and deep wisdom. As the saying goes, 'you don't have to be Jewish' to appreciate this text. If you put in the hard work required to read the Talmud, your mind will get a world-class workout. The process of studying the Talmud has been compared with the practice of Zen Buddhist Koan meditation, and for good reason. "
Rodkinsons' ten-book edition, the only extensive one currently in the public domain, contains complete translations of the 'Festivals' and 'Jurisprudence' sections of the Talmud. Rodkinson only finished about a third of the Talmud.
All of these viewpoints are abundantly represented on the Internet.
Some quote material out of context, or ascribe hostile intent to innocent passages.

Bibliographic note on Rodkinsons' Talmud
Rodkinson's translation went through at least two editions. The sacred-texts version was prepared from the second edition. All of these were from the 1918 printing, with the exception of book 1, which was scanned from a 1903 printing. The numbering of the volumes changed radically between the first and second edition; to add to the confusion the second edition was bound into a ten book set, two volumes per book. This numbering is consistent, for instance, the second edition book 1 contains volumes 1 and 2; book 5 contains volumes 9 and 10, and so on. However, the volume sequence of the first edition was completely shuffled in the second edition; for instance, volumes 9 and 10 of the second edition (in book 5) correspond to volumes 1 and 2 of the first edition. This confusion will be evident if you shop the used book market for individual books





Rodkinson version (10 Volumes):
https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Talmud/talmudtoc.html
http://www.nommeraadio.ee/meedia/pdf/RRS/Babylonian%20Talmud.pdf
________________________

Book 1: Tract Sabbath
Tract Sabbath discusses what can and cannot be done on the Jewish Holy day. This tract has a wealth of information on everyday Jewish life in late Classical times, including, for some reason, a great number of medical recipes. Because almost everything is done differently on the Sabbath, this contains an incredible level of ethnographic detail about a wide range of household activities including livestock, clothing, meals, horticulture, hunting, and other more obscure topics, such as fire-fighting and feminine hygiene. Rodkinson makes the point in an appendix that many of the Talmundic regulations which seem to be arbitrary were developed as a response to political persecution. He also includes a prayer which is offered upon the conclusion of studying any tract.

Volume I

Title Page
Explanatory Remarks
Dedication
Contents
Preface to the Second Edition
Editor's Preface
Brief General Introduction to the Babylonian Talmud
Introduction to Tract Sabbath
Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter I: Regulations Regarding Transfer on Sabbath
Chapter II: Regulations Concerning The Sabbath And 'Hanukah Light
Chapter III: Regulations Concerning Stoves, Hearths, and Ovens
Chapter IV: Regulations Concerning Victuals, Where They May or May Not Be Deposited to Retain Their Heat for the Sabbath
Chapter V: Regulations Concerning What May and May Not Be Worn by Animals on the Sabbath
Chapter VI: Regulations Concerning What Garments Women May Go Out With On the Sabbath
Chapter VII: The General Rule Concerning the Principal Acts of Labor on Sabbath
Chapter VIII: Regulations Concerning the Prescribed Quantities of Victuals and Beverages Which Must Not Be Carried About on the Sabbath
Chapter IX: Rabbi Aqiba's Regulations On Different Subjects
Chapter X: Further Regulations Concerning The Prescribed Quantity of Things To Be Stored

Volume II

Title Page
Explanatory Remarks
Contents
Synopsis of Subjects of Volume II.--Tract Sabbath
Chapter XI. Regulations Concerning Throwing From One Ground Into Another.
Chapter XII: Regulations Concerning Building, Ploughing, etc., On the Sabbath
Chapter XIII: Regulations Concerning Weaving, Tearing, Hunting, etc., on the Sabbath
Chapter XIV: Regulations Concerning the Catching of Reptiles, Animals and Birds
Chapter XV: Regulations Concerning the Tying and Untying of Knots on the Sabbath
Chapter XVI: Regulations Concerning Articles Which May be Saved From a Conflagration on Sabbath
Chapter XVII: Regulations Concerning Handling of Utensils and Furniture on the Sabbath
Chapter XVIII: Regulations Regarding the Clearing Off of Required Space, the Assistance To Be Given Cattle When Giving Birth To Their Young and To Women About To Be Confined
Chapter XIX: Regulations Ordained by R. Eliezer Concerning Circumcision on the Sabbath
Chapter XX: Regulations Concerning Certain Acts of Labor Which Must be Performed Differently on a Sabbath and on a Festival
Chapter XXI: Regulations Concerning the Pouring Out of Wine From Vessels Covered With a Stone (Which Must Not Be Lifted), and the Clearing Off of Crumbs, etc., From the Table
Chapter XXII: Regulations Concerning Preparation of Food and Beverages
Chapter XXIII: Borrowing, Casting Lots, Waiting for the Close of the Sabbath, and Attending to a Corpse
Chapter XXVI: Regulations Concerning a Man Who is Overtaken by Dusk on the Eve of Sabbath While Travelling, and Concerning Feeding of Cattle.
The Prayer at the Conclusion of a Tract
Appendix

Book 2: Tracts Erubin, Shekalim, Rosh Hashana
Tracts from section Moed (Festivals). Tract Erubin deals with regulations concerning travel on the Sabbath, and the proper construction of 'Erub', propitiatory offerings for transgressions of these rules, usually, but not always, constructed of food. Tract Shekalim deals with tithes. Tract Rosh Hashana discusses the Jewish New Year, a floating holiday tied to lunar observations.

Tract Erubin

Volume III. Title Page
Explanatory Remarks
Contents
Introduction to Tract Erubin
Synopsis of Tract Erubin
Chapter I: Size of Erubin
Chapter II: Use of Wells and Gardens on the Sabbath
Chapter III: Location of Erubin and Limits on Sabbath Travel.
Chapter IV: Sabbath Travel
Chapter V: Town Boundaries and Legal Limits
Chapter VI: Erubin of Courts and Partnerships
Chapter VII: Erubin in Courts and Alleys
Chapter VIII: Erubin of Limits, Food Required for Erubin, Erubin of Courts
Chapter IX: Combining of Roofs on Sabbath
Chapter X: Sundry Sabbath Regulations.

Tract Shekalim

Volume IV. Title Page
Explanatory Remarks
Contents of Tract Shekalim
Preface to Tract Shekalim
Tract Shekalim: Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter I.
Chapter II.
Chapter III.
Chapter IV.
Chapter V.
Chapter VI.
Chapter VII.
Chapter VIII.

Tract Rosh Hashana

Tract Rosh Hashana Contents
Introduction to Tract Rosh Hashana (New Year's Day)
Synopsis of Subjects of Tract Rosh Hashana
Chapter I.
Chapter II.
Chapter III.
Chapter IV.

Book 3: Tracts Pesachim, Yomah and Hagiga
Continuing with tracts from section Moed (Festivals). These are primarily discussions of the rituals to be performed on important holy days: principally Passover and the Day of Atonement. The short third tract, Hagiga, discusses the Holocaust ceremony, (meaning a burnt-offering), which today has come into use as a term for the Nazi genocide. Among other points of interest is description of the ritual of the scapegoat in Chapter VI. of Tract Yomah; and Chapter II. of Tract Hagiga has a notable digression on a variety of subjects, including the cryptic Chariot of God, and the names and characteristics of the seven heavens.

Tract Pesachim (Passover)

Title Page
Explanatory Remarks
Dedication
Contents
Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter I. Concerning the Removal of Leaven from the House
Chapter II: Time for Eating Unleavened Bread and Material Used for Making Unleavened Bread and Bitter Herbs
Chapter III: Regulations Concerning Articles Which Cause Transgression of the Law Prohibiting Leaven to be Seen or Found in the House of an Israelite.
Chapter IV: Regulations Concerning Work Which May and Must not be Performed on the Day Before Passover
Chapter V: Regulations Concerning the Sacrifice of the Paschal Lamb
Chapter VI: Regulations Concerning Acts Which Supersede the Due Observance of the Sabbath; The Paschal Offering; What if One Sacrifice is Confounded with Another
Chapter VII: Roasting the Paschal Lamb; If the Paschal Lamb Becomes Defiled; Parts of Lamb Eaten
Chapter VIII: Those Obligated to Eat the Paschal Sacrifice; Where It May Be Eaten; Companies Appointed to Eat It; Difference Between First and Second Passover
Chapter IX: The Second Passover; Passover during Exodus; Mixed Paschal Sacrifices
Chapter X: The Meal on the Eve of Passover and the Four Cups of Wine
Appendix A
Appendix B


Tract Yomah (Day of Atonement)

Title Page
Explanatory Remarks
Dedications
Contents
Introduction to Tract Yomah
Synopsis of Subjects, Tract Yomah
Chapter I: The Preparations of the High Priest
Chapter II: The Lots Priests Drew, Which Priests Should go to the Altar, How Many Priests Needed for Each Sacrifice
Chapter III: Time of the Daily Offering; Entry of a Layman into the Temple Court; Order of High-Priests' Service on Day of Atonement
Chapter IV: The Two Goats
Chapter V: Remaining Services of the High-Priest
Chapter VI: Regulations Concerning the He-Goats of the Day of Atonement And the Sending to the Desert, And the Confession Thereat.
Chapter VII: The Passages Read by the High-Priest and his Garments
Chapter VIII: Regulations Concerning Fasting on the Day of Atonement; What May Be Done Thereon, And What May Not Be Done.
Appendix


Tract Hagiga (Holocaust)

Contents
Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter I: Regulations Concerning the Holocaust, and the Appointed Time for the Peace-Offering
Chapter II: Regulations Concerning Public Lectures: Which Are And Which Are Not Allowed.
Chapter III: In What Cases Sacred Things Are More Rigorous Than Heave-Offerings, And Vice Versa



Book 4: Tracts Betzh, Succah, Moed Katan, Taanith, Megilla and Ebel Rabbathi or Semahoth
Completing the Festivals portion of Rodkinson's Talmud translation. Tract Betzah details regulations about cooking, fishing, hunting and other activities on feast days. Tract Succah discusses the Festival of the Tabernacles, particularly the construction and use of the Succah, or booth. Moed Katan is about miscellaneous laws about some minor festivals, for instance activites which are permissible during intercalendary periods. Taanith has discussions about the beginning of the rains, including a sequence of folktales about rainmaking Rabbis. Megilla is about Purim, particularly about the public reading of the book of Esther during that festival. Ebel Rabbath is about mourning and other funerary activities.



Tract Betzah or Yom Tob (Feast Days)

Title Page
Explanatory Remarks
Dedication
To the Reader
Contents
Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV
Chapter V


Tract Succah (Booths)

Contents
Dedication
Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV.
Chapter V


Trace Moed Katan (Minor Festivals)

Contents
Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III


Tract Taanith

Title Page
Explanatory Remarks
A Word to the Public
A Letter From Prof. Dr. M. Lazarus
Contents
Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV


Tract Megilla (Book of Esther)

Contents
Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV


Tract Ebel Rabbathi (Great Mourning), or Sema'hoth (Joys).

Contents
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV
Chapter V
Chapter VI
Chapter VII
Chapter VIII.
Chapter IX
Chapter X
Chapter XI
Chapter XII
Chapter XIII
Chapter XIV

Book 5: Tracts Aboth, Derech Eretz-Rabba, Derech Eretz-Zuta, and Baba Kama (First Gate)
This book starts out with three tracts on ethics, including the lucid and moving Pirqe Aboth (Sayings of the Fathers), (also available at sacred-texts in a translation by Taylor). This edition of Aboth comes with extensive commentary. The Baba Kama is the first section of a three-part opening arc of the Jurisprudence section. To the modern reader it is of interest because of the unintentional and (sometimes pungent) atmospheric details of everyday life in first century Israel. Many of the Baba Kama cases start when 'an ox gores' someone or something; the modern equivalent would probably be automobile moving violations. The debates are notable because they are based equally on scripture and appeals to an emerging standard of common-sense justice and human rights.



Tract Aboth

Title Page
Explanatory Remarks and Copyright
Dedication
Introduction to Section Jurisprudence
Synopsis of Tract Aboth (Fathers of the Synagogue).
Chapter I
Chapter II.
Chapter III.
Chapter IV.
Chapter V.
Chapter VI.


Tract Derech Eretz-Rabba. (Worldly Affairs).

Synopsis of Tract Derech Eretz-Rabba and Zuta
Chapter II.
Chapter III.
Chapter IV.
Chapter V.
Chapter VI.
Chapter VII.
Chapter VIII.
Chapter IX.
Chapter X.
Chapter XI.

Tract Derech Eretz-Zuta

Chapter I.
Chapter II.
Chapter IV.
Chapter V.
Chapter VI.
Chapter VII.
Chapter IX.
The Chapter on Peace
Advertisement at end of Volume


Tracts Baba Kama (First Gate)

Title Page
Contents
Introduction to the Three Gates of Section Jurisprudence
Synopsis of Subjects of Tract Baba Kama (The First Gate)
Chapter I.
Chapter II.
Chapter III.
Chapter IV.
Chapter V.
Chapter VI.
Chapter VII.
Chapter VIII



Book 6: Tract Baba Kama (First Gate), Part II and Tract Baba Metzia (Middle Gate)
The conclusion of Baba Kama, the First Gate, and Baba Metzia, the Middle Gate. The second half of Baba Kama continues with cases involving stolen items. Baba Metzia continues with civil law, particularly cases involving damages: among the topics are found and loaned articles, real estate, loans, titles, what constitutes usury and fraud, and labor law. Many of the cases in Baba Metzia are extremely convoluted, more so than usual. There are a few scattered legends about the life and death of the principal authors of the Talmud, and some notable passages, mostly in Chapter IV.

Tract Baba Kama (First Gate, part II)

Title Page
Explanatory Remarks
Contents
Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter IX
Chapter X


Tract Baba Metzia (Middle Gate), Part I

Contents
Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV


Tract Baba Metzia (Middle Gate), Part II

Title Page
Explanatory Remarks
Contents
Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter V
Chapter VI.
Chapter VII
Chapter VIII.
Chapter IX
Chapter X

Book 7: Tract Baba Bathra (Last Gate)
This, the third part of the 'Gate' sequence of tracts, deals with issues of civil law regarding property, including real estate, moveable possessions, and inheritance, in the usual great detail. At times the discussion becomes so hypothetical that Rodkinson, thankfully, skips ahead a bit. Sandwiched in this very dry volume is one wild section of Haggada (at the end of Chapter V) which consists of some very tall tales about fish, alligators and nautical going-ons. Also, notably, this tract includes what has to be one of the first attempts to discuss where transgender people fit into the legal framework.

Tract Baba Bathra, Part I

Title Page
Explanatory Remarks
Dedication
Contents
Synopsis Of Subjects Of Tract Baba Bathra (Last Gate).
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV
Chapter V
Appendix

Tract Baba Bathra, Part II

Title Page
Explanatory Remarks
Dedication
Contents
Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter VI
Chapter VII
Chapter VII.
Chapter IX
Chapter X




Book 8: Tract Sanhedrin: Section Jurisprudence (Damages)
The subject matter of Tract Sanhedrin is principally crime and punishment. One of the most notable discussions in this book is the debate about the 'stubborn and rebellious son' (Chapter VIII). The rabbis openly express scepticism that a son who disrespects his father in a particular way should be put to death. Out of this quibble over an obscure 'worst case scenario' we see the emergence of a key principle of jurisprudence: the execution of divine law must be tempered by human mercy. This book also wanders far and wide, dispensing wisdom on such topics as the location of the lost tribes, what the windows on Noah's ark were made of, and when the Messiah is due to arrive.

Title Page
A Word to the Reader
Contents
Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV
Chapter V
Chapter VI
Chapter VII
Chapter VIII
Chapter IX
Chapter X
Chapter XI

Book 9: Tracts Maccoth, Shebuoth, Eduyoth, Abuda Zara, and Horioth
This is the final book of the Rodkinson translation of the Talmud; it contains the remaining portions of the Jurisprudence section. Tract Maccoth deals with corporal punishment. Tract Shebuoth discusses oaths: what constitutes an oath, false oaths, and so on. Tract Eduyoth is a grab-bag of Mishna without commentary which give various cases related to other Talmud tracts. Tract Abuda Zara elaborates the Biblical commandment not to worship idols; it is of historical interest because of the tangential information about what the idolators (i.e. ancient Pagans) did or did not do. Tract Horioth is another short tract which discusses a number of very technical issues, including the hierarchy of dogs, cats and mice.

Tract Maccoth


Volume IX. (XVII.)

Title Page
Explanatory Remarks
Dedication
Concluding Words To The Completion Of Sections Festival And Jurisprudence
Contents
Synopsis of Subjects of Tract Maccoth (Stripes)
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III


Tract Shebuoth (Oaths)

Contents
Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV
Chapter V
Chapter VI.
Chapter VII.
Chapter VIII
Appendix to Page 13


Tract Eduyoth (Testimonies)

Introduction
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV
Chapter V.
Chapter VI
Chapter VII
Chapter VIII


Tract Abuda Zara


Volume X. (XVIII.)

Explanatory Remarks
Contents
Synopsis of Subjects
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV
Chapter V
Appendix to Page 60


Tract Horioth (Decisions)

Synopsis of Subjects of Tract Horioth
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III


Book 10: History of the Talmud
This is the introduction to Rodkinsons' Talmud translation. A history of the Talmud, starting with its five hundred years of composition from the first to fifth centuries C.E., and its bitter persecution from antiquity, through the Reformation up to the 19th Century. Includes biographies of the dozens of authors who wrote the Talmud, and a detailed bibliography through 1900.


Volume I: History of the Talmud

Title Page
Preface
Contents of Volume I.
Introduction
Chapter I: Origin of the Talmud
Chapter II: Development of the Talmud in the First Century
Chapter III: Persecution of the Talmud from the destruction of the Temple to the Third Century
Chapter IV: Development of the Talmud in the Third Century
Chapter V: The Two Talmuds
Chapter IV: The Sixth Century: Persian and Byzantine Persecution of the Talmud
Chapter VII: The Eight Century: the Persecution of the Talmud by the Karaites
Chapter VIII: Islam and Its Influence on the Talmud
Chapter IX: The Period of Greatest Diffusion of Talmudic Study
Chapter X: The Spanish Writers on the Talmud
Chapter XI: Talmudic Scholars of Germany and Northern France
Chapter XII: The Doctors of France; Authors of the Tosphoth
Chapter XIII: Religious Disputes of All Periods
Chapter XIV: The Talmud in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
Chapter XV. Polemics with Muslims and Frankists
Chapter XVI: Persecution during the Seventeenth Century
Chapter XVII: Attacks on the Talmud in the Nineteenth Century
Chapter XVIII. The Affair of Rohling-Bloch
Chapter XIX: Exilarchs, Talmud at the Stake and Its Development at the Present Time
Appendix A.
Appendix B


Volume II: Historical and Literary Introduction to the New Edition of the Talmud

Contents of Volume II
Part I: Chapter I: The Combination of the Gemara, The Sophrim and the Eshcalath
Chapter II: The Generations of the Tanaim
Chapter III: The Amoraim or Expounders of the Mishna
Chapter IV: The Classification of Halakha and Hagada in the Contents of the Gemara.
Chapter V: Apocryphal Appendices to the Talmud and Commentaries.
Plate facing page 48: Contents of the Talmud in Hebrew
Chapter VI: Epitomes, Codifications, Manuscripts and Printed Editions of the Talmud.
Chapter VII: Translations of the Talmud
Chapter VIII: Bibliography of Modern Works and Monographs on Talmudic Subjects
Chapter IX. Why Should Christians Feel Interested in the Talmud?
Chapter X: Opinions on the Value of the Talmud by Gentiles and Modern Jewish Scholars
Part II; Chapter I: Talmudical Ethics
Chapter II: Ethical Teachings of the Talmud
Part III: Method of Translation
Plate facing page 100: Page of the Talmud in Hebrew
Part IV: Criticism
Appendix to Chapter II.
Part V. The Arrangement of the Six Sections in Their Sixty Tracts



Actual Versions:

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The Soncino English Babylonian Talmud, Elegantly Reformatted in Two Columns in  by Reuven Brauner, Raanana 5771
http://www.613etc.com/

SEDER ZERA‘IM (Seeds: 11 tractates)
Berakoth (Benedictions) 01a Brochos 2a-31b | 01b Brochos 32a-64a
Pe‘ah (Corner) 02 Pei'oh
Demai (Doubtful) 03 Demai
Kil‘ayim (Mixtures) 04 Kilayim
Shebi‘ith (Seventh) 05 Shevi'is
Terumoth (Heave Offerings) 06 Trumos
Ma‘aseroth (Tithe) 07 Ma'aseros
Ma‘aser Sheni (Second Tithe) 08 Ma'aser Sheini
Hallah (Dough) 09 Challoh
‘Orlah ('Uncircumcision', sc. of trees) 10 Orlah
Bikkurim (First Fruits) 11 Bikkurim
SEDER MO‘ED (Appointed Seasons: 12 tractates)
Shabbath (Sabbath) 12a Shabbos 2a-31b | 12b Shabbos 35a-65b | 12c Shabbos 66a-100b | 12d Shabbos 101a-129b | 12e Shabbos 130a-157b
‘Erubin (Blendings) 13a Eruvin 2a-26b | 13b Eruvin 27a-52b | 13c Eruvin 53a-79a | 13d Eruvin 79b-105b
Pesahim (Paschal Lambs) 14a Pesochim 2a-32b | 14b Pesochim 33a-60a | 14c Pesochim 60b-86b | 14d Pesochim 87a-121b
Yoma (The Day) 15a Yoma 2a-27b | 15b Yoma 28a-61b | 15c Yoma 62a-88a
Sukkah (Booth) 16a Succah 2a-29a | 16b Succah 29b-56b
Bezah (Egg) 17 Beitzoh 2a-40b
Rosh Hashana (New Year) 18 Rosh Hashanna 2a-35a
Ta‘anith (Fast) 19 Ta'anis 2a-31a
Shekalim (Shekels) 20 Shekolim
Megillah (The Scroll) 21 Megillah 2a-32a
Mo‘ed Katan (Minor Feast) 22 Mo'ed Koton 2a-29a
Hagigah (Festival-Offering) 23 Chagigah 2a-27a
SEDER NASHIM (Women: 7 tractates)
Yebamoth (Sisters-in-law) 24a Yevomos 2a-19b | 24b Yevomos 20a-40b | 24c Yevomos 41a-63b | 24d Yevomos 64a-86b | 24e Yevomos 87a-106b | 24f Yevomos 107a-122b
Kethuboth (Marriage Settlements) 25a Kesuvos 2a-28b | 25b Kesuvos 29a-54a | 25c Kesuvos 54-77b | 25d Kesuvos 78a-112a
Nedarim (Vows) 26a Nedorim 2a-45a | 26b Nedorim 45b-91b
Nazir (Nazirite) 27 Nozir 2a-66b
Sotah (Suspected Adulteress) 28 Sotah 2a-49b
Gittin (Bills of Divorcement) 29a Gittin 2a-48a | 29b Gittin 48b-90b
Kiddushin (Consecrations) 30a Kiddushin 2a-40b | 30b Kiddushin 41a-82b
SEDER NEZIKIN (Damage: 10 tractates)
Baba Kamma (First gate) 31a Baba Kamma 2a-31a | 31b Baba Kamma 31b-62b | 31c Baba Kamma 62b-93a | 31d Baba Kamma 93b-119b
Baba Mezi‘a (Middle gate) 32a Baba Metziah 2a-28a | 32b Baba Metziah 28b-58a | 32c Baba Metziah 58b-90b | 32d Baba Metziah 91a-119a
Baba Bathra (Last gate) 33a Baba Basra 2a-35b | 33b Baba Basra 36a-77b | 33c Baba Basra 78a-113a | 33d Baba Basra 113b-145b | 33e Baba Basra 146a-176b
Sanhedrin (Court of Justice) 34a Sanhedrin 2a-25a | 34b Sanhedrin 25b-45b | 34c Sanhedrin 46a-66b | 34d Sanhedrin 67a-92b | 34e Sanhedrin 93a-113b
‘Abodah Zarah (Strange Worship) 35a Avodoh Zoroh 2a-35b | 35b Avodoh Zoroh 36a-76b
Horayoth (Rulings) 36 Horiyos
Shebu‘oth (Oaths) 37a Shevuos 2a-28b | 37b Shevuos 29a-49b
Makkoth (Floggings) 38 Makkos
‘Eduyyoth (Testimonies) 39 Eiduyos
Aboth (Fathers) 40 Ovos
SEDER KODASHIM (Holy Things: 11 tractates)
Zebahim (Animal-offerings) 41a Zevochim 2a-27b | 41b Zevochim 28a-56b | 41c Zevochim 57a-91a | 41d Zevochim 91b-128b
Menahoth (Meal-offerings) 42a Menochos 2a-26b | 42b Menochos 27a-58b | 42c Menochos 59a-86a | 42d Menochos 86b-110a
Hullin (Non-holy) 43a Chullin 2a-30b | 43b Chullin 31a-60b | 43c Chullin 61a-89a | 43d Chullin 89b-120a | 43e Chullin 120b-142a
Bekoroth (Firstlings) 44a Bechoros 2a-31a | 44b Bechoros 31b-61a
‘Arakin (Estimations) 45 Arachin
Temurah (Substitution) 46 Temurah
Kerithoth (Excisions) 47 Krisos
Me‘ilah (Trespass) 48 Me'iloh
Tamid (The Continual [Offering]) 49 Tomid
Middoth (Dimensions) 50 Middos
Kinnim ([Bird-]nests) 51 Kinnim
SEDER TOHOROTH (Cleannesses: 12 tractates)
Niddah (The Menstruant) 52a Niddoh 2a-23a | 52b Niddoh 23b-48a | 52c Niddoh 48b-73a
Kelim (Vessels) 53 Keilim
Oholoth (Tents) 54 Oholos
Nega‘im (Leprosy) 55 Nego'im
Parah (Heifer) 56 Poroh
Tohoroth (Cleannesses) 57 Tohoros
Mikwa'oth (Pools of Immersion) 58 Mikva'os
Makshirin (Predisposition) 59 Machshirin
Zabim (They That Suffer Flux) 60 Zavim
Tebul Yom (Immersed at Day Time) 61 Tevul Yom
Yadayim (Hands) 62 Yodoyim
Ukzin (Stalks) 63 Uktzin
FOREWORD, ABBREVIATIONS, GLOSSARY


____________________________


The Standard Formatted PDF and HTML Editions
SEDER ZERA‘IM (Seeds: 11 tractates)
Introduction to Seder Zera‘im — Rabbi Dr. I Epstein
Berakoth (Benedictions: 9 chapters, 64 folios, 405 pages) Berachoth.PDF
Introduction to Berakoth — Maurice Simon
Pe‘ah (Corner: 8 chapters, 46 pages) Peah.PDF
Demai (Doubtful: 7 chapters, 82 pages) Demai.PDF
Kil‘ayim (Mixtures: 9 chapters, 68 pages) Kilayim.PDF
Shebi‘ith (Seventh: 10 chapters, 52 pages) Sheviith.PDF
Terumoth (Heave Offerings: 11 Chapters, 57 pages) Terumoth.PDF
Ma‘aseroth (Tithes: 5 chapters, 29 pages) Maaseroth.PDF
Ma‘aser Sheni (Second Tithe: 5 chapters, 33 pages) Maaser_Sheni.PDF
Hallah (Dough 4 chapters, 40 pages) Hallah.PDF
‘Orlah ('Uncircumcision', sc. of trees: 3 chapters, 29 pages) Orlah.PDF
Bikkurim (First Fruits: 4 chapters, 4 folios, 24 pages) Bikkurim.PDF
SEDER MO‘ED (Appointed Seasons: 12 tractates)
Foreword to Seder Mo‘ed — The Very Rev. The Chief Rabbi Dr. J. H. Hertz
Introduction to Seder Mo‘ed — Rabbi Dr. I Epstein
Shabbath (Sabbath: 24 chapters, 157 folios, 806 pages) Shabbath.PDF
Introduction to Shabbath — Rabbi Dr. H. Freedman
‘Erubin (Blendings: 9 chapters, 105 folios, 733 pages) Eiruvin.PDF
Pesahim (Paschal Lambs: 10 chapters, 121 folios, 623 pages) Pesachim.PDF
Yoma (The Day: 8 chapters, 88 folios, 441 pages) Yoma.PDF
Sukkah (Booth: 5 chapters, 56 folios, 27 pages) Sukkah.PDF
Bezah (Egg: 5 chapters, 40 folios, 203 pages) Beitzah.PDF
Rosh Hashana (New Year: 4 chapters, 35 folios, 174 pages) Rosh_HaShanah.PDF
Ta‘anith (Fast: 4 chapters, 31 folios, 165 pages) Taanith.PDF
Shekalim (Shekels: 8 chapters, 36 pages) Shekalim.PDF
Megillah (The Scroll: 4 chapters, 32 folios, 195 pages) Megilah.PDF
Mo‘ed Katan (Minor Feast: 3 chapters, 29 folios, 192 pages) Moed_Katan.PDF
Hagigah (Festival-Offering: 3 chapters, 27 folios, 171 pages) Chagigah.PDF
SEDER NASHIM (Women: 7 tractates)
Foreword to Seder Nashim — The Very Rev. The Chief Rabbi Dr. J. H. Hertz
Introduction to Seder Nashim — Rabbi Dr. I. Epstein
Yebamoth (Sisters-in-law: 16 chapters, 122 folios, 871 pages) Yevamoth.PDF
Introduction to Yebamoth — Rev. Dr. Israel W. Slotki
Kethuboth (Marriage Settlements: 8 chapters, 112 folios, 728 pages) Kethuboth.PDF
Introduction to Kethuboth — Rev. Dr. Israel W. Slotki
Nedarim (Vows: 9 chapters, 91 folios, 283 pages) Nedarim.PDF
Introduction to Nedarim — Rabbi Dr. H. Freedman
Nazir (Nazirite: 9 chapters, 66 folios, 253 pages) Nazir.PDF
Introduction to Nazir — Rabbi B. D. Klein
Sotah (Suspected Adulteress: 9 chapters, 49 folios, 271 pages) Sotah.PDF
Introduction to Sotah — Rev. Dr. Abraham Cohen
Gittin (Bills of Divorcement: 9 chapters, 90 folios, 439 pages) Gittin.PDF
Introduction to Gittin — Maurice Simon
Kiddushin (Consecrations: 4 chapters, 82 folios, 425 pages) Kiddushin.PDF
SEDER NEZIKIN (Damage: 10 tractates)
Foreword — The Very Rev. The Chief Rabbi Dr. J. H. Hertz
Introduction to Seder Nezikin — Rabbi Dr. I. Epstein
Baba Kamma (First gate: 10 chapters, 119 folios, 719 pages) Baba_Kama.PDF
Introduction to Baba Kamma — Dr. E. W. Kirzner
Baba Mezi‘a (Middle gate: 10 chapters, 119 folios, 676 pages) Baba_Metzia.PDF
Introduction to Baba Mezi‘a — Rabbi Dr. H. Freedman
See also: Introductory Essay: Social Legislation in the Talmud (1962) — Rabbi Dr. I. Epstein
Baba Bathra (Last gate: 10 chapters, 176 folios, 780 pages) Baba_Bathra.PDF
Introductory to Baba Bathra — Rev. Dr. Israel W. Slotki and Maurice Simon
Sanhedrin (Court of Justice: 11 chapters, 113 folios, 781 pages) Sanhedrin.PDF
Introduction to Sanhedrin — Rabbi Dr. H. Freedman and Jacob Shachter
‘Abodah Zarah (Strange Worship: 5 chapters, 76 folios, 366 pages) Avodah_Zarah.PDF
Introduction to Abodah Zarah — Rev. Dr. Abraham Cohen
Horayoth (Rulings: 3 chapters, 14 folios, 106 pages) Horayoth.PDF
Introduction to Horayoth — Rev. Dr. Israel W. Slotki
Shebu‘oth (Oaths: 8 chapters, 49 folios, 309 pages) Shevuoth.PDF
Makkoth (Floggings: 3 chapters, 24 folios, 175 pages) Makkoth.PDF
‘Eduyyoth (Testimonies: 8 chapters, 50 pages) Eduyoth.PDF
Aboth (Fathers: 6 chapters, 91 pages) Avoth.PDF
SEDER KODASHIM (Holy Things: 11 tractates)
Epilogue — The Very Rev. The Chief Rabbi Israel Brodie
Introduction to Seder Kodashim — Rabbi Dr. I. Epstein
Zebahim (Animal-offerings: 13 chapters, 120 folios, 596 pages) Zevachim.PDF
Menahoth (Meal-offerings: 13 chapters, 110 folios, 682 pages) Menachoth.PDF
Hullin (Non-holy: 11 chapters, 142 folios, 825 pages) Chullin.PDF
Bekoroth (Firstlings: 9 chapters, 61 folios, 418 pages) Bechoroth.PDF
‘Arakin (Estimations: 9 chapters, 34 folios, 204 pages) Arachin.PDF
Temurah (Substitution: 7 chapters, 34 folios, 253 pages) Tmurah.PDF
Kerithoth (Excisions: 6 chapters, 28 folios, 220 pages) Krithoth.PDF
Me‘ilah (Trespass: 6 chapters, 22 folios, 86 pages) Meilah.PDF
Tamid (The Continual [Offering]: 7 chapters, 33 folios, 38 pages) Tamid.PDF
Middoth (Dimensions: 5 chapters, 23 pages) Middoth.PDF
Kinnim ([Bird-]nests: 3 chapters, 24 pages) Kinim.PDF
SEDER TOHOROTH (Cleannesses: 12 tractates)
Introduction to Seder Tohoroth — Rabbi Dr. I. Epstein
Niddah (The Menstruant: 10 chapters, 73 folios, 509 pages) Nidah.PDF
Introduction to Niddah — Rev. Dr. Israel W. Slotki
Kelim (Vessels: 30 chapters, 142 pages) Kelim.PDF
Oholoth (Tents: 18 chapters, 86 pages) Oholoth.PDF
Nega‘im (Leprosy: 14 chapters, 70 pages) Negaim.PDF
Parah (Heifer: 12 chapters, 58 pages) Parah.PDF
Tohoroth (Cleannesses: 10 chapters, 60 pages) Taharoth.PDF
Introduction to Tohoroth — Rev. Dr. Israel W. Slotki
Mikwa'oth (Pools of Immersion: 10 chapters, 46 pages) Mikvaoth.PDF
Makshirin (Predispositions 6 chapters, 36 pages) Makshirin.PDF
Zabim (They That Suffer Flux: 5 chapters, 24 pages) Zavim.PDF
Tebul Yom (Immersed at Day Time: 6 chapters, 20 pages) Tevul_Yom.PDF
Yadayim (Hands: 4 chapters, 26 pages) Yadayim.PDF
Ukzin (Stalks: 3 chapters, 20 pages) Uktzin.PDF

FOREWORD BY CHIEF RABBI DR. J. H. HERTZ
Foreword by Chief Rabbi Israel Brodie
Abbreviations
Glossary
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kalender: http://www.dafyomi.org/machzor.php?machzor=13&masechta=shekalim 

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